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Glossary of Pali terms

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abhijjhā
abhiññā
abrahmacariya
abyāpāda
adhicittasikkhā
adhipaññāsikkhā
adhisīlasikkhā
ādīnava
ādīnavasaññā
adinnādāna
adinnādāna veramaṇī
adosa
adukkhamasukha
adukkhamasukhā vedanā
āhāra
āhāre paṭikūlasaññā
ājīva
ajjhatta
akālika
ākāsānañcāyatana
ākiñcaññāyatana
akusala
akusalakammapatha
akusalamūla
alobha
āloka
amata
amoha
anāgāmī
anāgāmita
anagāriya
ānāpāna
ānāpānassati
anavajja
anatta
anattasaññā
anicca
aniccasaññā
anicce dukkhasaññā
ānisaṃsa
anusaya
anussati
anussava
anuttaro purisadammasārathī
āpatti
apāya
appamāda
appicchatā
āraddhavīriya
arahant
arahatta
arañña
ariya
ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga
ariyasacca
ariyasāvaka
arūpabhava
asantuṭṭhitā
asappurisa
āsava
āsavānaṃ khayañāṇa
asmimāna
assāda
assutavā
asubha
asubhanimitta
asubhasaññā
asura
ātāpī
atta
attavādupādāna
avīci
avihiṃsā
avijjā
āvuso
āyasmā
āyatana
ayoniso manasikāra



abhijjhā: covetousness, acquisitiveness, desire for what one does not have. Being abhijjhā·lu is defined at AN 10.176 in terms of covetousness or jealousy towards others' possessions. At AN 3.67, lobha is explained as having abhijjhā for synonym.

Abhijjhā is one of the three mental akusala·kamma·pathas.

Abhijjhā is remarkably combined with domanassa, to form a compound (abhijjhā·domanassa), which appears exclusively either in the Satipaṭṭhāna formulas or in the Sense restraint Formulae.

Abhijjhā is occasionally mentioned as one of the five nīvaraṇas, as a makeshift for kāma·cchanda.

Abhijjhā is part of the first upakkilesa mentioned at MN 7: abhijjhā·visama·lobha (covetousness and unrighteous greed).



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abhiññā: [abhi+ñā]

1) original meaning (in older texts): direct knowledge, higher knowledge, complete understanding - in a broad sense, without specification. Heendeniya suggests that it means yathā bhūta ñāṇa·dassana (knowledge and vision of things as they really are).

♦ Juxtaposed with (ekanta·nibbidā, virāga, nirodha,) upasama, sambodhi and Nibbāna (typically referring to the outcome of the practice of the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga, e.g. SN 56.11).

♦ The attainment of arahatta is described with a list of phenomena to be experienced through abhiññā: āsavānaṃ khaya, an·āsava ceto·vimutti and paññā·vimutti (e.g. AN 3.91).

♦ At SN 45.159 and AN 4.254, the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga is said to lead to another list of 11 dhammas to be dealt with by means of abhiññā: the five khandhas (to be fully understood), avijjā and bhava·taṇhā (to be abandoned), vijjā and vimutti (to be experienced), samatha and vipassanā (to be developed).

2) late meaning: there is a list of six higher powers or potencies attained by the practice of samādhi beyond the fourth jhāna, which are called together abhiññās, but that list appears only in one sutta, the late and catechistic DN 34. These powers are otherwise described without such collective designation, as at AN 3.102. It is only in the later litterature (commentaries etc.) that the term abhiññā comes to be used, (and most of the time) with reference to these six dhammas. At SN 8.7 however, the word chaḷ·abhiññā (the six abhiññās) is listed among realizations such as paññā·vimutti and the three vijjas, which has probably been, among others, a cause for the arising of this terminology.



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abrahmacariya: [a+brahmacariya]

that which is contrary to the pure life, which naturally would be interpreted as essentially consisting in the breakage of one of the precepts, especially by engaging in sexual intercourse: a·brahmacariya replaces kāmesu·micchā·cāra in the list of the bodily akusala·kamma·pathas when intended for bhikkhus (kāmesu·micchā·cāra at AN 10.176 vs a·brahmacariya at MN 27). In this context, a·brahmacariya constitutes the first pārājika offense:

Yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhūnaṃ sikkhā·sājīva·samāpanno sikkhaṃ apaccakkhāya dubbalyaṃ anāvikatvā methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭiseveyya antamaso tiracchāna·gatāyapi, pārājiko hoti asaṃvāso ti.

Should any bhikkhu participating in the training and livelihood of the bhikkhus, without having renounced the training, without having declared his weakness engage in sexual intercourse, even with a female animal, he is defeated and no longer in affiliation.

See further details in Thanissaro Bhikkhu's Monastic Code.

However, a definition of a·brahmacariya is given by Ānanda at SN 45.18 as consisting in micchā·magga, i.e. micchā·diṭṭhi, micchā·saṅkappa etc.

a·brahmacariya is listed among things that lead a bhikkhu to an apāya or niraya (e.g. AN 5.286).



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abyāpāda: [a+byāpāda]

non-ill-will, absence of malevolence. At AN 3.67, adosa is explained as having a·byāpāda for synonym. The Vibhanga naturally relates a·byāpāda with mettā, although the latter is only part of the former, which should also include sates of simple upekkhā.

♦ In this connection, the derived expression abyāpanna·citto hoti (he has a citta devoid of byāpāda) appears in the exposition of the three mental kusala·kamma·pathas (e.g. AN 10.176), explained with the compound 'appaduṭṭha·mana·saṅkappa' and the description: 'ime sattā a·verā hontu a·byāpajjā, a·nīghā sukhī attānaṃ pariharantū' (qv.).

♦ A similar expression, abyāpanna·citto viharati (he dwells with citta devoid of byāpāda), appears in the Nīvaraṇānaṃ Pahāna formula, explained with the compound sabba·pāṇa·bhūta·hitānukampī (friendly and compassionate towards all living beings).

a·byāpāda·saṅkappa is one of the three constituents of sammā·saṅkappa.

♦ Since byāpāda is a nīvaraṇa, a·byāpāda as a state of mind is necessary for successful meditation and attaining the four jhānas.

♦ The derived adjective, abyāpajjha, notably appears as a factor in the appamāṇā ceto·vimutti formulas.



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adhicittasikkhā: [adhi+citta+sikkhā]

training in higher mind. A definition is given by the Buddha at AN 3.90: adhi·citta·sikkhā is identical with the culture of sammā·samādhi, i.e. the development of the four jhānas.

Adhi·citta·sikkhā is one of the three sikkhās, together with adhi·sīla·sikkhā and adhi·paññā·sikkhā. It is said of these three trainings at AN 3.82 that they are 'ascetic tasks of an ascetic' (samaṇassa samaṇa·karaṇīyāni), at AN 3.93 that they are 'urgent tasks of a bhikkhu' (bhikkhussa accāyikāni karaṇīyāni), and at AN 6.30 that they constitute the 'supreme training' (anuttariyaṃ sikkhā) for the purification of beings, etc. (formula in the style of the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta)

♦ They can even replace the Pātimokkha, in some cases (AN 3.85).



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adhipaññāsikkhā: [adhi+paññā+sikkhā]

training in higher wisdom/ insight. A definition is given at AN 3.90. It consists of the understanding of the four ariya·saccas. At AN 3.91, though, adhi·paññā·sikkhā is defined as 'an·āsava ceto·vimutti paññā·vimutti' (liberation of the mind without impurities, liberation by discernment).

Adhi·paññā·sikkhā is one of the three sikkhās, together with adhi·sīla·sikkhā and adhi·citta·sikkhā. It is said of these three trainings at AN 3.82 that they are 'ascetic tasks of an ascetic' (samaṇassa samaṇa·karaṇīyāni), at AN 3.93 that they are 'urgent tasks of a bhikkhu' (bhikkhussa accāyikāni karaṇīyāni), and at AN 6.30 that they constitute the 'supreme training' (anuttariyaṃ sikkhā) for the purification of beings, etc. (formula in the style of the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta)

♦ They can even replace the Pātimokkha, in some cases (AN 3.85).



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adhisīlasikkhā: [adhi+sīla+sikkhā]

training in higher virtue. A definition is given by the Buddha at AN 3.90. It consists of a thorough undertaking of the Pātimokkha's rules.

Adhi·sīla·sikkhā is one of the three sikkhās, together with adhi·citta·sikkhā and adhi·paññā·sikkhā. It is said of these three trainings at AN 3.82 that they are 'ascetic tasks of an ascetic' (samaṇassa samaṇa·karaṇīyāni), at AN 3.93 that they are 'urgent tasks of a bhikkhu' (bhikkhussa accāyikāni karaṇīyāni), and at AN 6.30 that they constitute the 'supreme training' (anuttariyaṃ sikkhā) for the purification of beings, etc. (formula in the style of the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta)

♦ They can even replace the Pātimokkha, in some cases (AN 3.85).

♦ However, adhi·sīla·sikkhā is not only for bhikkhus, since it should also be undertaken by upāsakas, as they meet with their success (sampadā) or their prosperity (sambhava), lest it is their their failure (vipatti) as in AN 7.30, their decline (parihāna) as in AN 7.29, or their ruin (parābhava) as in AN 7.31.



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ādīnava: disadvantageous characteristic of phenomena, danger, drawback, disadvantage, bad result or consequence. The antonym is ānisaṃsa. The ādīnava of a particular dhamma is often described as its characteristics of anicca, dukkha, and the fact that it has 'vipariṇāma·dhamma'. This is seen mainly in the case of each of the five khandhas (e.g. SN 12.26) and the twelve āyatanas (e.g. SN 35.13 and SN 35.14).

♦ Frequently mentioned in conjunction with assāda and nissaraṇa, often preceded by samudaya and atthaṅgama, as characteristics to be understood in detail for all saṅkhāras.

♦ This set of 3 or 5 investigations appears very often in the Saṃyutta Nikāya, and is applied to a large variety of dhammas, among which notably to kāma (in detail at MN 13), but also to duccarita (e.g. AN 5.241), the five khandhas (e.g. SN 22.74), particularly vedanā (e.g. MN 13), rūpa (e.g. MN 13), the 4 paccayas (e.g. SN 16.1), bhava (e.g. AN 4.10), the six phass·āyatanas (e.g. AN 4.10) etc.

♦ A very useful statement is made at SN 12.52: 'Upādāniyesu dhammesu ādīnav·ānupassino viharato taṇhā nirujjhati'.

ādīnava·saññā is defined at AN 10.60 with reference to kāya.

♦ On the ādīnava of kāma, MN 54 provides a powerful series of similes to describe them, which is referred to in a number of suttas.



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ādīnavasaññā: [ādīnava+saññā]

perception of drawbacks. This practice is explained at AN 10.60, with reference to kāya: it consists in a reflection on the various ills of the body.

♦ According to AN 7.27, so long as the bhikkhus practice ādīnava·saññā, only growth can be expected of them, not decline.

♦ Other perceptions usually associated with ādīnava·saññā include asubha·saññā, āhāre paṭikūla·saññā, sabba·loke an·abhirata·saññā, maraṇa·saññā, anicca·saññā, anicca·saññā, anicce dukkha·saññā, anatta·saññā, pahāna·saññā, virāga·saññā and nirodha·saññā.



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adinnādāna: [a+dinna+ādāna]

taking what is not given, theft, robbery. The definition is given at AN 10.176.

Adinn·ādāna is one of the three bodily akusala·kamma·pathas.

♦ For bhikkhus, it is a very serious matter, as it constitutes the second pārājika offense:

Yo pana bhikkhu adinnaṃ theyyasaṅkhātaṃ ādiyeyya - yathārūpe adinnādāne rājāno coraṃ gahetvā haneyyuṃ vā bandheyyuṃ vā pabbājeyyuṃ vā: ‘corosi bālosi mūḷhosi thenosī’ ti - tathārūpaṃ bhikkhu adinnaṃ ādiyamāno ayampi pārājiko hoti asaṃvāso ti.

Should any bhikkhu, in what is reckoned a theft, take what is not given from an inhabited area or from the wilderness - just as when, in the taking of what is not given, kings arresting the criminal would flog, imprison, or banish him, saying, "You are a robber, you are a fool, you are benighted, you are a thief" - a bhikkhu in the same way taking what is not given also is defeated and no longer in affiliation.

See further details in Thanissaro Bhikkhu's Monastic Code.

♦ The unpleasant consequences of adinn·ādāna are described at AN 8.40: its slightest result is loss of wealth.



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adinnādāna veramaṇī: [adinnādāna veramaṇī]

abstaining from taking what is not given.

Adinn·ādāna veramaṇī is the second of the pañcasīla.

♦ When describing the moral undertakings of a bhikkhu (e.g. MN 27), the following description is given: 'Adinn·ādānaṃ pahāya adinn·ādānā paṭivirato hoti dinn·ādāyī dinna·pāṭikaṅkhī, athenena suci·bhūtena attanā viharati,' for an explanation of which see the Ariya Sīlakkhandha Formulae.



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adosa: [a+dosa]

absence of aversion. At AN 3.67, a·dosa is explained as having a·byāpāda for synonym. Synonyms given in the Vibhanga: a·dussanā, a·dussitattaṃ (not being angry, not offending).

A·dosa is one of the three kusala·mūlas.

♦ According to AN 3.112, any kamma caused by a·dosa is anavajja and has sukha·vipāka (pleasant results).

♦ According to AN 6.39, a·dosa does not arise from dosa, but rather from a·dosa itself (na adosā doso samudeti; atha kho adosā adosova samudeti). And vice versa.



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adukkhamasukha: [a+dukkha+a+sukha]

neither-pleasant-nor-unpleasant, i.e. neutral. At MN 44, adukkham·asukha is explained as neva sātaṃ nāsātaṃ (neither agreeable nor disagreeable).

♦ In the majority of cases, adukkham·asukha qualifies one of the types of vedanā: see adukkham·asukhā vedanā.

Adukkham·asukha also qualifies the fourth jhāna, and is thus related to upekkhā: see the corresponding formula.

♦ In a few cases, adukkham·asukha qualifies a certain type of phassa (e.g. SN 12.62).



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adukkhamasukhā vedanā: [a+dukkha+a+sukha vedanā]

feeling which is neither-pleasant-nor-unpleasant, i.e. neutral. A definition is given at MN 44: 'yaṃ kho kāyikaṃ vā cetasikaṃ vā neva sātaṃ nāsātaṃ vedayitaṃ' (whatever is felt bodily or mentally as neither agreeable nor disagreeable). This definition is the same as the one given for upekkh·indriya at SN 48.38. At SN 48.37, it is explicit that adukkham·asukhā vedanā should be seen as the latter: 'yadidaṃ upekkh·indriyaṃ, adukkham·asukhā sā vedanā daṭṭhabbā'.

Adukkham·asukhā vedanā is one of the three (main) types of vedanā.

♦ According to SN 36.5, adukkham·asukhā vedanā should be seen as aniccata (adukkham·asukhā vedanā aniccato daṭṭhabbā).

Adukkham·asukhā vedanā are twofold: sāmisa or nirāmisa, as stated at AN 6.63: 'atthi sāmisā adukkhamasukhā vedanā, atthi nirāmisā adukkhamasukhā vedanā', although without further explanations.

♦ According to MN 44, adukkham·asukhā vedanā is 'ñāṇa·sukhā aññāṇa·dukkhā' (pleasant when accompanied by ñāṇa, and unpleasant without ñāṇa). Furthermore, avijjā is the counterpart of adukkham·asukhā vedanā (adukkham·asukhāya vedanāya avijjā paṭibhāgo), although the anusaya of avijjā does not necessarily underlie all adukkham·asukhā vedanā: (na sabbāya adukkham·asukhāya vedanāya avijj·ānusayo anuseti).

♦ According to SN 36.9, adukkham·asukhā vedanā share some important characteristics with other types of vedanās: 'aniccā, saṅkhatā, paṭicca·samuppannā, khaya·dhammā, vaya·dhammā, virāga·dhammā, nirodha·dhammā'.

♦ For other characteristics that adukkham·asukhā vedanā share with other vedanās, see there.



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āhāra:

1) concrete sense: food, alimentation.

♦ For bhikkhus, piṇḍapāta is a synonym of āhāra in this first meaning, and as such the formula of reflection on the paccayas is sometimes applied directly to āhāra (e.g. AN 4.37). This formula, often referred to as bhojane matt·aññutā, is analyzed here.

♦ Moderation in food is often praised in the suttas, as for example at AN 5.96: 'app·āhāro hoti, anodarikattaṃ anuyutto' (he eats only a little food, committed to not filling his stomach). Eating once a day is also often praised, as at AN 3.71: 'yāva·jīvaṃ arahanto eka·bhattikā' (as long as they live, the arahants take one meal a day) and MN 65, where it is said to result in few illnesses, few diseases, lightness, strength, and a pleasant abiding. See also the story of King Pasenadi at SN 3.13.

♦ The practice of āhāre paṭikūla·saññā is often recommended in the suttas (e.g. SN 46.74).

♦ It is interesting to note that in the formula describing pubbe·nivās·ānussati·ñāṇa (see here), āhāra is one of the few things that the practioner remembers about his past lives, along with his name, appearance, experience of pleasure and pain, and death.

♦ Meat eating is authorized for bhikkhus, under the ti·koṭi·parisuddha (pure in three aspects) rule: 'a·diṭṭhaṃ, a·sutaṃ, a·parisaṅkitaṃ' (not seen, not heard, not suspected). See MN 55.

2) figurative sense: support, nutriment. They are listed as four (e.g. at MN 9):

1. kabaḷīkāra
2. phassa
3. manosañcetanā
4. viññāṇa

They are described as follows: 'cattārome āhārā bhūtānaṃ sattānaṃ ṭhitiyā, sambhavesīnaṃ anuggahāya' (These four are nutriments for the sustainance of beings having come to existence and for the support of those who are seeking a new birth).

♦ The Buddha explains with powerful similes how the four āhāras should be considered at SN 12.63.

♦ The āhāras are said to originate and cease with taṇhā (e.g. at MN 9).

♦ In some suttas, āhāra has the meaning of condition and is close in meaning to paccaya (in its first, general sense) or hetu. For example, SN 46.51 details which phenomena 'feed' the five nīvaraṇas and the seven bojjhaṅgas. Another example is found at AN 8.39: having gone for refuge to the Buddha (buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gato hoti) is said to be a nourishment of happiness (sukhass·āhāra), and so are other refuges as well as the five precepts.

♦ As one would expect, there is a relationship between āhāra and rūpa or kāya. According to SN 22.56: 'āhāra·samudayā rūpa·samudayo; āhāra·nirodhā rūpa·nirodho' (with the arising of nutriment, there is arising of Form; with the cessation of nutriment, there is cessation of Form) and according to SN 47.42: 'āhāra·samudayā kāyassa samudayo; āhāra·nirodhā kāyassa atthaṅgamo' (with the arising of nutriment, there is arising of the body; with the cessation of nutriment, there is cessation of the body).



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āhāre paṭikūlasaññā: [āhāra paṭikūla+saññā]

perception of loathsomeness in food.

♦ According to AN 7.49, when one often applies his/her mind to this practice, he/she is automatically repulsed by rasa·taṇhā (craving for tastes).

Āhāre paṭikūla·saññā is described at AN 4.163 as participating of a painful mode of practice (dukkhā paṭipadā).

♦ The seven bojjhaṅgas can be developed in conjunction with āhāre paṭikūla·saññā (SN 46.74).

Āhāre paṭikūla·saññā appears always in a list, generally with asubha·saññā, maraṇa·saññā, and sabba·loke an·abhirata·saññā. They are often collectively recommended for the sake of understanding or removing rāga (e.g. AN 5.303).

♦ Other perceptions usually associated with āhāre paṭikūla·saññā include anicca·saññā, anicce dukkha·saññā, anatta·saññā, ādīnava·saññā, pahāna·saññā, virāga·saññā and nirodha·saññā.



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ājīva: livelihood, means of subsistence. For proper or upright livelihood, see sammā·ājīva. As to right or wrong livelihood, it is said of them at SN 45.1: 'micchā·kammantassa micchā·ājīvo pahoti' (in one of wrong action, wrong livelihood comes to be) and 'sammā·kammantassa sammā·ājīvo pahoti' (in one endowed with sammā·kammanta, sammā·ājīva comes to be), which makes wrong livelihood fall back on breaking of one of the five sīlas or engaging in one of the ten akusala·kamma·pathas.

1) For bhikkhus:

♦ In the definition of adinnādāna veramaṇī, given in the Ariya Sīlakkhandha Formulae (e.g. at MN 27), it said of a bhikkhu: 'dinn·ādāyī dinna·pāṭikaṅkhī' (he takes [only] what is given, expecting [only] what is given). The same formulae (e.g. also at MN 27) explain further some fundamental principles of a bhikkhu's livelihood, e.g. refusing money, women and slaves, animals, properties, bribery, trickery etc. They further say (here) that a bhikkhu, wherever he goes needs only two things, and should keep to them only.

♦ A list of five improper ways of gaining material support from donors is given at AN 5.83. It looks quite important because it seriously questions the behavior of many monks nowadays who are quite self-righteous. Their meaning has remained curiously quite fuzzy, and there is oddly no mention of them in the Vinaya, but there is a definition of these terms in the Vibhanga:

1. kuhanā: (PTSD [probably inaccurate]:) deceit, hypocrisy, fraud - (B.Bodhi:) scheming, duplicity - (Vibhanga:) with an evil mind attached to gain and honours, for the sake of acquisitions, indicating what is to be done for establishing things, e.g. great lodgings etc.

2. lapanā: (PTSD:) muttering, prattling (for begging) - (B.Bodhi:) talking - (Than.B:) persuading - (Vibhanga:) with an evil mind attached to gain and honours, talking, prattling, flattering in various ways etc.

3. nemittikatā: (PTSD:) prognostication, inquisitiveness, insinuation - (B.Bodhi:) hinting - (Vibhanga:) with an evil mind attached to gain and honours, making signs [and perhaps:] communicating by facial expressions etc.

4. nippesikatā: (PTSD:) jugglery, trickery - (B.Bodhi:) belittling - (Vibhanga:) with an evil mind attached to gain and honours, abusing, despising, blaming, mocking etc.

5. lābhena lābhaṃ nijigiṃsitā: (PTSD:) coveting acquisitions upon acquisitions - (B.Bodhi:) pursuing gain with gain - (Vibhanga:) with an evil mind attached to gain and honours, accumulating acquisitions and looking for more material objects.

♦ Besides mentioning also the above five items, a long list of wrong livelihoods for bhikkhus is given in the suttas of the Sīlakkhandha Vagga of DN, e.g. at DN 11. They deal essentially with fortune telling, witchcraft, divination, acting as a priest (e.g. performing weddings etc.).

2) For householders:

♦ Five types of unskilful trades to be avoided are listed at AN 5.177.

♦ Acting as a comic (at SN 42.2) and being a warrior (at SN 42.3) are clearly indicated as morally dangerous livelihoods.



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ajjhatta(ṃ): [adhi+atta]

1) (adv:) internally, inwardly.

2) (adj:) interior, inner, personal, connected with the self, in contrast to anything outside (bāhira/bahiddhā), objective or impersonal.

♦ Thus, ajjhatta applies chiefly to mental phenomena and whatever happens in the body.



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akālika: [a+kāla+ika]

1) without delay, immediate, immediately effective, possessed of immediate result

2) unconditioned by time or season.

Akālika is the second standard epithet of the Dhamma, which is given in the dhamm·ānussati formula. A definition of the word is given in the Cūḷa Niddesa (KN, Nc 108), where it is likened to the expression 'diṭṭh·eva dhamme', and explained by the fact that whoever practices the ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga enjoys its fruits now, in the visible world, and does not have to wait to be hereafter, in another world, for that.



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ākāsānañcāyatana: [ākāsānañca+āyatana]

the sphere of infinitude of space. Attained as the 5th jhāna. See the standard description here. There is not much said about it in the suttas, it is apparently something to be experienced rather than talked about.



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ākiñcaññāyatana: [ākiñcañña+āyatana]

the sphere of nothingness. Attained as the 7th jhāna. See the standard description here. There is not much said about it in the suttas, it is apparently something to be experienced rather than talked about.



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akusala: [a+kusala]

disadvantageous, unskilful, blameworthy, demeritorious, unskilful, resulting in suffering, troublesome. At MN 61, we find the following synonyms: '[yo] atta·byābādhāya·pi saṃvatteyya, para·byābādhāya·pi saṃvatteyya, ubhaya·byābādhāya·pi saṃvatteyya' ([what] would lead to one's own harm, lead to the harm of others, lead to the harm of both), dukkh·udraya (having suffering as consequence), dukkha·vipāka (resulting in suffering). Another three synonyms are given at AN 3.66: sāvajja, viññu·garahita (censured by the wise), '[yo] ahitāya dukkhāya saṃvattati' ([what] leads to adversity and suffering). At MN 88, Ānanda further gives the following synonym: sabyāpajjha. The word akusala is otherwise defined in terms of the ten akusala·kamma·pathas (e.g. at AN 10.180), which are fully explained at AN 10.176. Akusala is also sometimes defined in terms of the eight or tenfold micchā·paṭipadā (e.g. at AN 10.136).

♦ It is stated indirectly at MN 114 that all types of conducts are either kusala or akusala, which would mean there is no "no man's land" between the two opposites. (The common sense, of course, dictates that there would be nonetheless a gradation in intensity).

♦ In the Ekaka Nipāta, a number of suttas underline dhammas that cause akusala dhammas to arise: micchā·diṭṭhi (AN 1.306), pamāda (AN 1.58), laziness (kosajja - AN 1.60), mahicchatā (AN 1.62), asantuṭṭh·itā (AN 1.64), a·yoniso manasi·kāra (AN 1.66), a·sampajañña (AN 1.68), and evil friendship (pāpa·mittatā - AN 1.70).

♦ Naturally, the opposite dhammas cause the removal of akusala dhammas: sammā·diṭṭhi (AN 1.307), appamāda (AN 1.59), vīriyārambha (AN 1.61), appicchatā (AN 1.63), santuṭṭh·itā (AN 1.65), yoniso manasi·kāra (AN 1.67), sampajañña (AN 1.69), and kalyāṇa·mittatā (AN 1.71).

♦ At AN 5.52, the five nīvaraṇas are called 'akusala·rāsī' (accumulations of demerit).

♦ These nīvaraṇas are overcome by one who attains the first jhāna, and who thereby enjoys freedom from akusala dhammas (temporarily, of course), as made clear by the condition for such an attainment stated in the corresponding standard formula: 'vivicca akusalehi dhammehi'.



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akusalakammapatha: [akusala+kamma+patha]

unskilful paths of action, disadvantageous courses of action. There are ten akusala·kamma·pathas, of three types: bodily, verbal or mental. They are described in these terms at AN 10.176.

The three bodily akusala·kamma·pathas, frequently referred to as (a part of) kāya·duccarita, correspond to the actions to be abstained from for the practice of sammā·kammanta:

1. pāṇātipāta
2. adinnādāna
3. kāmesu·micchā·cāra

The four verbal akusala·kamma·pathas, frequently referred to as (a part of) vacī·duccarita, correspond to the actions to be abstained from for the practice of sammā·vācā:

4. musā·vāda
5. pisuṇa·vācā
6. pharusa·vāca
7. samphappalāpa

The three mental akusala·kamma·pathas, frequently referred to as (a part of) mano·duccarita, correspond to the actions to be abstained from for the practice of sammā·saṅkappa (since nekkhamma consists chiefly in abandoning abhijjha):

8. abhijjha
9. byāpāda
10. micchā·diṭṭhi

♦ The practice of the ten akusala·kamma·pathas is generally described as leading either to niraya (e.g. AN 10.221), tiracchāna·yoni or pettivisaya, but it is made clear at MN 136 that it is only a general direction and that although the results are bound to come, there is nonetheless no absolute determinism regarding the type of future birth, except perhaps in the case of the five deeds which are described at AN 5.129 as āpāyikā nerayikā parikuppā atekicchā (incurable agitations that lead to a plane of misery or to hell), a.k.a. ānantariya kamma. On the flipside, see also the case of Saraṇāni at SN 55.24.

♦ It is said of one who practices the ten akusala·kamma·pathas that he creeps (saṃsappati) and is crooked (jimha) in body, speech and mind, and that he can expect a crooked destination and rebirth (AN 10.216); that he should not be associated with (na bhajitabbo - AN 10.200), not attended on (na payirupāsitabbo - AN 10.201); that he is an asappurisa (AN 10.204).



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akusalamūla: [akusala+mūla]

roots of what is disadvantageous, sources of the unskilful. The term is defined by Sāriputta at MN 9 as consisting of lobha, dosa, and moha. This is a relatively rare word that appears only in five suttas.



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alobha: [a+lobha]

absence of craving. At AN 3.67, alobha is explained as having an·abhijjhā for synonym.

Alobha is one of the three kusala·mūlas.

♦ According to AN 3.112, any kamma caused by alobha is anavajja and has sukha·vipāka (pleasant results).

♦ According to AN 6.39, alobha does not arise from lobha, but rather from alobha itself (na alobhā lobho samudeti; atha kho alobhā alobhova samudeti). And vice versa.



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āloka: light.

Āloka is often used as a figure for enlightenment, namely for ñāṇa, paññā, vijjā and cakkhu, as in the Dhamma·cakka·ppavattana Sutta. It is also used as a figure for the four ariya·saccas as at SN 56.38. At AN 4.143, there is mention of the light of discernment (paññ·āloka), as being greater than that of the sun, the moon or the fire.

Āloka also refers to a light within the mind, as made clear at SN 51.20, where it is juxtaposed with 'sappabhāsaṃ cittaṃ (luminous mind). Āloka·saññā is also juxtaposed with divā·saññā (perception of day/daytime) in the following formula that describes the development of the luminous mind: 'bhikkhuno ālokasaññā suggahitā hoti divāsaññā svādhiṭṭhitā' (the perception of light is well grasped by a bhikkhu; the perception of day is well resolved upon).

♦ Attending to the perception of this mental light is said at AN 4.41 and AN 6.29 to lead to ñāṇa·dassana.

♦ Giving it attention is also mentioned as a way to get rid of thīna·middhā in the corresponding standard formula and at AN 7.61.



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amata: the Deathless, ambrosia, a state in which there is no more arising nor passing away of phenomena, no birth and no death. It is a figure for Nibbāna.



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amoha: [a+moha]

absence of delusion. At AN 3.67, amoha is explained as having vijjā for synonym. An elaborate definition is given in the Vibhanga: 'Tattha katamo amoho? Yā paññā pajānanā vicayo pavicayo dhammavicayo sallakkhaṇā upalakkhaṇā paccupalakkhaṇā paṇḍiccaṃ kosallaṃ nepuññaṃ vebhabyā cintā upaparikkhā bhūrī medhā pariṇāyikā vipassanā sampajaññaṃ patodo paññā paññindriyaṃ paññābalaṃ paññāsatthaṃ paññāpāsādo paññāāloko paññāobhāso paññāpajjoto paññāratanaṃ amoho dhammavicayo sammādiṭṭhi: ayaṃ vuccati “amoho”.' [dictionary].

Amoha is one of the three kusala·mūlas.

♦ According to AN 3.112, any kamma caused by amoha is anavajja and has sukha·vipāka (pleasant results).

♦ According to AN 6.39, amoha does not arise from moha, but rather from amoha itself (na amohā moho samudeti; atha kho amohā amohova samudeti). And vice versa.



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anāgāmī: [an+āgāmī] lit: 'one who does not return' - designates an individual having reached the third of the four maggas leading to Nibbāna. He is so called because after death, he cannot 'return to this world', i.e. be reborn as a human being or a low class deva, but only as a special type of Brahmā. He will reach arahatta and eventually Parinibbāna during that one and only subsequent life. An anāgāmī is generally described as an individual having abandoned the five saṃyojanas connected to what is inferior (orambhāgiya) that fetter him to the round of existence.



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anāgāmita: [an+āgāmī+ta] state of an anāgāmī. This stage is described as being reachable by anyone who practices very seriously, specially in the case where one is not able to become an arahant. See for example DN 22.



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anagāriya: homelessness. A characteristic of samaṇas.

♦ The word appears nearly always in the expression agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajati ('He goes forth from the home life into homelessness').

♦ The way in which a follower of the Buddha's teaching adopts anagāriya is described in a standard formula.



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ānāpāna: breath, respiration. Always regarded as a tool for practicing the Dhamma and mentioned in the context of ānāpānassati.



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ānāpānassati: [ānāpāna+sati] mindfulness of in and out breathing, awareness of respiration. The practice of ānāpānassati is described in detail by the Buddha in the Ānāpānassati Sutta. See also a detailed analysis of these standard instructions here. It is often said that developping and practicing heedfully ānāpānassati is very fruitful and rewarding ('ānāpānassati bhāvanā bhāvitā bahulī·katā maha·pphalā hoti mah·ānisaṃsā'). Thus, it is recommended for a large panel of purposes:

♦ at AN 6.115 for the abandoning of cetaso vikkhepa (mental disturbance).

♦ at AN 9.1 to achieve vitakk·upaccheda (stoppage of thoughts).

♦ at MN 62 to become mindful even of one's last breath.

♦ at SN 54.9 to refresh oneself and allay any akusala dhamma that may have arisen.

♦ at MN 118 as a way to practice the four satipaṭṭhānas.

♦ at SN 54.2, as a way to develop the seven bojjhaṅgas.

♦ at SN 54.8, for a large panel of objectives: to prevent the body or eyes from getting tired (neva me kāyo kilameyya na cakkhūni), to abandon memories and intentions connected with the household life (ye me gehasitā sarasaṅkappā te pahīyeyyu), for various asubha practices, for attaining all the eight jhānas, for attaining the cessation of saññā and vedanā (saññā·vedayita·nirodha), and for the full comprehension of vedanā.

♦ It is explained at SN 54.11 that ānāpānassati·samādhi is what the Buddha generally practices during his vassa retreat, that ānāpānassati·samādhi is a noble dwelling (ariya·vihāra), a brahmic dwelling (brahma·vihāra), a Tathāgata's dwelling (tathāgata·vihāra). For trainees (sekha), it leads to the destruction of āsavas. For arahant s, it procures a pleasant abiding, and sati·sampajañña.

♦ The practice of ānāpānassati is also declared at SN 54.4 to lead to either aññā or anāgāmitā in this very life, for those who practice seriously enough.



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anattā: [an+attā] no-self, egolessness, soullessness, impersonality, absence of identity.

♦ It is the third of the ti·lakkhaṇa, a universal fact whose understanding is declared at SN 22.42 to be a way to exert dhamm·ānudhamma·ppaṭipatti.

♦ The characteristic of anattā applies to all phenomena, as declared in a famous sentence which occurs in a handful of suttas: 'sabbe dhammā anattā' (all phenomena are not-self).

♦ But as explained at SN 23.17, the characteristic of anattā is to be understood chiefly at the level of the five upādāna·kkhandhas, although it is frequent to find treatments of the six āyatanas - and the dhammas that are related to them - in terms of anattā in SN 35 (e.g. SN 35.6).

♦ The understanding of anattā is often described (e.g. SN 22.17) with a stock phrase: 'n·etaṃ mama, n·eso·ham·asmi, na m·eso attā' (This is not mine, I am not this, this is not my self). Ñāṇavīra considers this translation as misleading since he considers it can mean 'but something else is mine', and he prefers 'Not, this is mine; not, this I am; not, this is my self'.

♦ The characteristic of anattā was taught by the Buddha for the first time in what is considered as his second discourse, the Anatta·lakkhaṇa Sutta. The intellectual argument used to expose this teaching is the fact that if each of the upādāna·kkhandhas belonged to the self, then the self would be able to decide how it should be, which is not the case. The understanding of anattā is then derived from the understanding of anicca and dukkha according to a standard series of questions.

♦ At MN 35, the Buddha explains anattā by absence of ownership, using an analogy with a king owning his realm.

♦ At AN 4.49, seeing as atta something which is actually anattā constitutes one of four saññā·vipallāsa (distortions of perception), citta·vipallāsa (perversions of the mind), diṭṭhi·vipallāsa (inversions of views), the other three being the corresponding misunderstanding of asubha, aniccā and dukkha.



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anattasaññā: [anattā+saññā]

perception of non-self.

♦ Very often, this perception is applied specifically to what is already perceived as unsatisfactory and it becomes dukkhe anatta·saññā.

♦ The practice of anatta·saññā leads to abandoning asmi·māna (AN 9.1).

♦ The practice of anatta·saññā also leads to abandoning attānu·diṭṭhi (the view of self): see AN 6.112.

♦ At AN 6.104, 6 benefits are cited as constituting enough motivation for establishing anatta·saññā in all dhammas.

♦ According to AN 7.49, when one often applies his/her mind to this practice, he/she is automatically devoid of I-making and my-making and dwells at peace, liberated.

♦ The seven bojjhaṅgas can be developed in conjunction with anatta·saññā (SN 46.78).

♦ According to AN 7.27, so long as the bhikkhus practice anatta·saññā, only growth can be expected of them, not decline.

♦ Other perceptions usually associated with anatta·saññā include anicca·saññā, anicce dukkha·saññā, anatta·saññā, ādīnava·saññā, pahāna·saññā, virāga·saññā and nirodha·saññā.



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anavajja: [an+avajja] blameless, faultless. Opposed to sāvajja. Although the meaning is slightly different, anavajja can be considered as a synonym of kusala: the explanation of what is the anavajja dhamma (blameless teaching), given in terms of the ten akusala kamma·patha at AN 10.184, is identical the explanation of what is kusala given at AN 10.180. Moreover, at MN 88, anavajja is clearly mentioned as a synonym of kusala, along with abyāpajjha and sukha·vipāka. We also find the following synonym and explanation at AN 3.66: viññu·ppasatthā (commended by the wise) and "[yo] hitāya sukhāya saṃvattati" ([what] leads to [one's] welfare and well-being).

♦ The word anavajja·sukha (the pleasure of blamelessness) is repeatedly used to describe the feeling arising from observing the ariya sīla·kkhandha, which are described in their standard description (see at the bottom of that page).

♦ The word anavajja·bala (the strength of blamesslessness) appears at AN 4.153 and the two following suttas together with paññā·bala, vīriya·bala, sati·bala, samādhi·bala and bhāvana·bala. The word anavajja·bala is defined at AN 9.5 as the fact of being endowed with anavajja kāya·kamma, anavajja vacī·kamma and anavajja mano·kamma.



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anicca: [a+nicca]

1) adj: inconstant, impermanent, momentary.

2) n: inconstancy, impermanence, momentariness.

♦ The understanding of anicca is described with the attainment of sotāpatti as the rise of 'the Dhamma eye' (Dhamma·cakkhu): “yaṃ kiñci samudaya·dhammaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ nirodha·dhamman”ti (whatever has the nature of arising has the nature of ceasing). It is the case of āyasmā Koṇḍañña at SN 56.11.

Anicca is the first of the ti·lakkhaṇas, a universal fact whose understanding is declared at SN 22.40 to be a way to exert dhamm·ānudhamma·ppaṭipatti.

♦ The characteristic of anicca applies to all saṅkhārās, as declared in a famous sentence which occurs in a handful of suttas: 'sabbe saṅkhārā aniccā' (all conditioned phenomena are inconstant).

♦ But as explained at SN 23.13, the characteristic of anicca is to be understood chiefly at the level of the five upādāna·kkhandhas, although it is frequent to find treatments of the six āyatanas - and the dhammas that are related to them - in terms of anicca in the Saḷāyatana Saṃyutta (e.g. SN 35.4).

♦ At AN 4.49, seeing as nicca something which is actually anicca constitutes one of four saññā·vipallāsa (distortions of perception), citta·vipallāsa (perversions of the mind), diṭṭhi·vipallāsa (inversions of views), the other three being the corresponding misunderstanding of asubha, dukkha and anatta. The impermanence of phenomena is described as the fact that they arise, transform, and pass away. It is the first of the ti·lakkhaṇa, and is considered as the easiest to be observed. Its understanding naturally leads to the understanding of the other two.



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aniccasaññā: [anicca+saññā]

perception of impermanence/inconstancy. This practice is explained at AN 10.60: it happens at level of the five khandhas.

♦ The practice of anicca·saññā leads to abandoning asmi·māna (MN 62). The process is explained at AN 9.1: anicca·saññā leads to anatta·saññā, which in turn leads to asmi·māna·samugghāta (eradication of the conceit 'I am').

♦ At SN 22.102, it is said that anicca·saññā leads to the elimination of kāma·rāga, rūpa·rāga, bhava·rāga, avijjā, and the eradication of asmi·māna. The sutta lists 10 similes to underline the power of anicca·saññā.

♦ The practice of anicca·saññā also leads to abandoning assāda·diṭṭhi (the view of sensory enjoyment): see AN 6.112.

♦ At AN 6.102, 6 benefits are cited as constituting enough motivation for establishing anicca·saññā in all saṅkhāras.

♦ According to AN 7.49, when one often applies his/her mind to this practice, he/she is automatically repulsed by lābha·sakkāra·siloka.

♦ The seven bojjhaṅgas can be developed in conjunction with anicca·saññā (SN 46.76).

♦ According to AN 7.27, so long as the bhikkhus practice anicca·saññā, only growth can be expected of them, not decline.

♦ In the Aṅguttara Nikāya, anicca·saññā often appears together with asubha·saññā, āhāre paṭikūla·saññā, sabba·loke an·abhirata·saññā, maraṇa·saññā, anicce dukkha·saññā, (sometimes preceded by: dukkhe) anatta·saññā, ādīnava·saññā, pahāna·saññā, virāga·saññā and nirodha·saññā.



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anicce dukkhasaññā: [anicca dukkha+saññā]

perception of suffering in what is inconstant.

♦ It nearly always appears in the following progression: anicca·saññā, anicce dukkha·saññā, dukkhe anatta·saññā.

♦ According to AN 7.49, when one often applies his/her mind to this practice, a vivid perception of danger towards laziness is automatically established in him/her.



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ānisaṃsa: benefit, good result, generally relating to a practice.



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anusaya: inclination, latent tendency, propensity, persistance of a dormant or latent disposition. The seven anusayas are listed at AN 7.11:

1. kāma·rāg·ānusaya
2. paṭigh·ānusaya
3. diṭṭh·ānusaya
4. vicikicch·ānusaya
5. mān·ānusaya
6. bhava·rāg·ānusaya
7. avijj·ānusaya

According to Rhys Davids: 'In the oldest texts the word usually occurs absolutely, without mention of the cause or direction of the bias. [This] list govern[s] the connotation of the word, but it would be wrong to put that connotation back into [all] the earlier passages.'

♦ According to MN 148, rāg·ānusaya and paṭigh·ānusaya are activated by mental reaction (i.e. ayoniso manasikāra) to sukhā vedanā and dukkhā vedanā respectively, whereas avijj·ānusaya is activated on account of adukkham·asukhā vedanā with lack of proper understanding, attitude which is described at SN 36.6 as typical of an uninstructed (assutavā) puthujjana. On the other hand, those anusayas are not activated if one abstains from these mental reactions and develops proper understanding, attitude which is described at SN 36.6 as typical of an instructed (sutavā) ariyasāvaka.

♦ According to MN 18, the cessation of all these anusayas comes from not finding anything to delight in, welcome, or remain fastened to in the source from which saññās and categories [born of] papañca beset an individual (yato·nidānaṃ purisaṃ papañca·saññā·saṅkhā samudācaranti, ettha ce natthi abhinanditabbaṃ abhivaditabbaṃ ajjhositabbaṃ). This explains why at MN 44 all vedanās are not underlied by anusayas.

♦ According to AN 7.12, the brahmacariya is fulfilled (brahmacariya vussati) with the abandoning and destruction of each anusaya, and the end of suffering is reached when all of them have been abandoned.



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anussati: [anu+sati]

recollection, remembrance, calling to mind. There are six main anussatis which are generally called together anussatiṭṭhāna (subjects of recollection). They are defined at AN 6.25. They consist of:

1. Buddh·ānussati

2. Dhamm·ānussati

3. Saṅgh·ānussati

4. sīl·ānussati

5. cāg·ānussati

6. devat·ānussati

The first four of these are analyzed in detail here. This list of six is quite well supported by other suttas, although there can be some variations. Sometimes only five of them occur (e.g. AN 3.71) or some are replaced by different though similar ones (e.g. kalyāṇamitte instead of Saṅgha at AN 11.13). AN 3.71 emphasizes their importance as it describes them as main practices to be undertaken by lay people for observing Uposatha. The effects that the practice of these anussatis has on the mind are described as follows:

♦ At SN 11.3, the first three of them (Buddh·ānussati, Dhamm·ānussati Saṅgh·ānussati) are recommended to allay any kind of fear.

♦ According to AN 3.71, the mind becomes bright (cittaṃ pasīdati), joy arises (pāmojjaṃ uppajjati), and the impurities of the mind are abandoned (ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti). According to AN 6.25, these anussatis also make the mind upright and make an ariyasāvaka emerge from the five kāma·guṇas.

♦ According to AN 11.13, the anussatis should be used as a basis for establishing sati.

♦ At AN 6.30, recollecting the Buddha or one of his disciples constitutes the supreme recollection (anussat·ānuttariya) for the purification of beings, etc. (formula of the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta's introduction).

♦ According to AN 6.10, when an ariyasāvaka practices these anussatis, at that time his mind is not under the sway of any of the three akusala·mūlas, and he gains an inspiration and a joy (pāmojja) that can lead him up to samādhi.

♦ At AN 6.141, the six anussatis are recommended for the abhiññā of rāga.

♦ Between AN 1.296 and AN 1.301, each of the six anussatis is recommended for attaining virāga, nirodha, upasama, abhiññā, sambodhi and nibbāna. And again between AN 1.485 and AN 1.490, one who develops each of them is said to respond to the Buddha's advice and not eat piṇḍapāta in vain.

♦ According to MN 28, if the practice of the first three anussatis does not bear its fruits, then one should arouse saṃvega.

♦ One other major use of the concept (more than 80 times in the four Nikāyas) is to refer to the practice of pubbe·nivās·ānussati·ñāṇa (e.g. AN 3.102) in the stock phrase: 'bhikkhu anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati, seyyathidaṃ ekampi jātiṃ... (a bhikkhu recollects his various former abodes, that is to say one birth... etc.)' which is analyzed in detail here.

AN 10.153 and AN 10.197 specify things that should not be recollected (na anussaritabbaṃ): each factor of the tenfold micchā·paṭipadā (including micchā·ñāṇa and micchā·vimutti), as well as any undertaking of whichever of the ten akusala kamma·pathas. The opposite factors are to be recollected.

♦ Recollecting those who are accomplished on the path is said to be very helpful. At SN 46.3, it is an opportunity to recollect the Dhamma learned from them and it arouses sati·sambojjhaṅga. At MN 68, a bhikkhu recollecting a noble companion who has passed away directs his mind towards his saddhā, suta, sīla, cāga and paññā. At MN 31, basically anyone recollecting hardcore practitioners such as Anuruddha, Nandiya and Kimibila will get benefited.

♦ There is mention of another anussati, the recollection of peace (upasam·ānussati), which appears only at AN 1.305 and AN 1.494. It is not defined anywhere in the suttas. The Visuddhimagga defines it in terms similar to virāga·saññā and nirodha·saññā.

♦ There is also another completely different set of five anussatis that appears only at AN 6.29. Those are:

1. The first three jhānas, leading to a pleasant abiding in the visible world (diṭṭha·dhamma·sukha·vihāra)

2. āloka·saññā, leading to the attainment of knowledge and vision (ñāṇa·dassana·p·paṭilābha)

3. the 31 body parts, leading to abandoning sensual avidity (kāma·rāga·p·pahāna)

4. the nine sivathika contemplations, leading to the uprooting of the conceit 'I am' (asmi·māna·samugghāta)

5. The fourth jhāna, leading to the attainment of various elements (aneka·dhātu·paṭivedha).

The fifth referring most probably to the six abhiññās.



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anussava: [anu+sava]

1) hearsay, report, rumor. Clearly used in this sense at MN 68.

2) what has been heard/learned from another (through religion, philosophy, science, knowledge, theories, opinions and traditions of all sorts), anussavika being in this case most simply (although somewhat narrowly) translated as traditionalist. The brahmins of the three Vedas are described as such at MN 100.

See also the analysis provided in footnote 1 here.

♦ At MN 76, two dangers of relying on an anussava are cited: the teachings or opinions may not be remembered correctly, and they may simply not be true.

Anussava appears most often in two sets of either erroneous or uncertain grounds for accepting a teaching or a view:

♦ In conjunction with paramparā (what has been transmitted [by a tradition]), itikira (general consensus), piṭakasampadāna (what has been handed down in a collection of texts), takkahetu (the basis of logical reasoning), nayahetu (the basis of inference), ākāraparivitakka (deep reflection), diṭṭhinijjhānakkhanti, bhabbarūpatā (what seems probable), and "samaṇo no garū"ti ([the thought:] 'The samaṇa is our revered teacher'). See for example AN 3.66 orAN 3.67.

♦ In conjunction with saddhā, ruci (liking), ākāraparivitakka (deep reflection), and diṭṭhinijjhānakkhanti. At SN 35.153, these five are contrasted with "having seen phenomenas with discernment" (dhammā paññāya disvā). At SN 12.68 they are contrasted with "I know, I see" (jānāmi, passāmi). At MN 95, they are presented as five improper grounds to draw a definite conclusion (ekaṃsena niṭṭhaṃ gacchati).



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anuttaro purisadammasārathī: supreme leader of persons to be tamed - one of the attributes of the Buddha, which appears in his standard description (for which see Buddhānussati). See the explanation of the term given at MN 137.



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āpatti: vinaya offense. There are ten types of offenses: pārājika, saṅghādisesa, aniyata (indefinite), nissaggiya pāctittiya (forfeiture and confession), pāctittiya (confession only), pāṭidesanīya (acknowledgement), sekhia (training), dukkaṭa, dubbhāsita (wrong speech) and thullaccaya (grave offense).



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apāya:

1) ruin, loss, separation (from wealth or dear ones)

2) lapse, falling away (e.g. from good conduct)

3) state of woe, unhappy afterlife. Almost always associated with vinipāta and dug·gati. The apāya are traditionally numbered as four: birth as an asura, in petti·visaya, in tiracchāna·yoni and in niraya.

♦ According to AN 10.176, beings are lead to such states of existence by adopting the ten akusala kamma·pathas, often referred to as the threefold duccaritas. A very large number of other behavior are described as having the same result, most of which though are mere elaborations of the aforementioned ten duccaritas. For example: stinginess (macchera), envy (issā), kāma·rāga [SN 37.4]; being faithless (assaddha), without conscienciousness (ahirika), without scruple (anottappī), angry (kodhana), undiscerning (duppañña) [SN 37.5], malicious (upanāhī) [SN 37.6], lazy (kusīta) [SN 37.12] etc. It is also said (e.g. MN 41) that the reason for going to an apāya is conduct that is not in accordance with the Dhamma and conduct that is unrighteous (a·dhamma·cariyā·visama·cariyā).

♦ According to AN 8.54, there are four sources of apāya (ruin) in this human life: womanizing (itthi·dhutta), drunkenness (surā·dhutta), gambling (akkha·dhutta), and bad friends (pāpa·mitta).



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appamāda: [a+pamāda]

heedfulness, assiduity, diligence, seriousness of practice. The Commentary glosses it as similar in meaning to sati, although if the latter often refers to remembering the cultivation of skilful states, appamāda is rather focused on avoiding unskilful mental states. Bhikkhu Bodhi remarks: appamāda "denotes an attitude of critical scrutiny directed toward one's own mind both in its internal movement and in its reactions to external affairs. The term suggests diligent effort and acute attentiveness, and it further sounds a note of moral caution and care." Appamāda is defined at SN 48.56 as follows:

Katamo ca bhikkhave, appamādo? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu cittaṃ rakkhati āsavesu ca sāsavesu ca dhammesu.

And what, bhikkhus, is heedfulness? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu protects his mind against the mental impurities and the mental states that accompany them.


Another explicit definition is given at SN 35.97 in relation to two criteria (sense restraint and knowing phenomena):

kathañca, bhikkhave, appamādavihārī hoti? cakkhundriyaṃ... jivhindriyaṃ... manindriyaṃ saṃvutassa, bhikkhave, viharato cittaṃ na byāsiñcati cakkhuviññeyyesu rūpesu. tassa abyāsittacittassa pāmojjaṃ jāyati. pamuditassa pīti jāyati. pītimanassa kāyo passambhati. passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ viharati. sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati. samāhite citte dhammā pātubhavanti. dhammānaṃ pātubhāvā appamādavihārī tveva saṅkhaṃ gacchati.

And how, bhikkhus, does one dwell heedfully? In one, bhikkhus, who dwells restraining the eye faculty... tongue faculty... mind faculty, the mind is not stained by mental phenomena cognizable by the mind. In one whose mind is not stained, joy arises. In one who is joyful, exaltation arises. For one who is exalted, the body becomes tranquil. One whose body is tranquil dwells in well-being. For one in well-being, the mind concentrates. When the mind is concentrated, phenomena become manifest. When phenomena are manifest, one is considered as 'one who dwells heedfully'.


Yet another explicit definition is given at SN 55.40, in relation to not remaining content with the four sot·āpattiy·aṅgas and cultivating solitude:

kathañca, nandiya, ariyasāvako appamādavihārī hoti? idha, nandiya, ariyasāvako buddhe... dhamme... sanghe aveccappasādena... ariyakantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti... so tena ariyakantehi sīlehi asantuṭṭho uttari vāyamati divā pavivekāya rattiṃ paṭisallānāya. tassa evaṃ appamattassa viharato pāmojjaṃ jāyati. etc.

And how, Nandiya, does a noble disciple dwell heedfully? Here, Nandiya, a noble disciple is endowed with verified confidence in the Buddha... Dhamma... Sangha... with virtues that are pleasing to the noble ones... Not content with virtues that are pleasing to the noble ones, he strives further in solitude by day and seclusion by night. For him, dwelling thus heedfully, joy arises etc. (the same as above)


At AN 4.76, appamāda is defined as having hiri and ottappa:

hirīmāyaṃ, bhikkhave, ottāpī appamatto hoti.

One, bhikkhus, who has conscientiousness and moral cautiousness is heedful.


Appamāda plays a very important role in the Buddha's teaching, as his last words make it obvious (SN 6.15):

‘vayadhammā saṅkhārā, appamādena sampādethā’ti.

By nature, Fabrications pass away. Strive with heedfulness.


♦ The Buddha states at AN 2.5 how decisive he considered appamāda had been for his own enlightenment:

tassa mayhaṃ, bhikkhave, appamādādhigatā sambodhi, appamādādhigato anuttaro yogakkhemo.

It was through heedfulness, bhikkhus, that I achieved awakening, it was by heedfulness that I achieved the supreme relief from the yoke.


♦ The importance of appamāda is often stressed with reference to the act of meditating (jhāyati) at the end of certain suttas, in the following formula:

“yaṃ, bhikkhave, satthārā karaṇīyaṃ sāvakānaṃ hitesinā anukampakena anukampaṃ upādāya, kataṃ vo taṃ mayā. etāni, bhikkhave, rukkhamūlāni, etāni suññāgārāni; jhāyatha, bhikkhave, mā pamādattha; mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha. ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī”ti.

What should be done by a Teacher out of compassion for his disciples, seeking their welfare and having compassion for them, that I have done for you. There are these roots of trees, those are empty dwellings. Meditate, bhikkhus, do not be negligent, do not regret it later. This is our instruction to you.


♦ Its importance is also attested at AN 10.15 and then illustrated by ten similes:

ye keci, bhikkhave, dhammā kusalā kusalabhāgiyā kusalapakkhikā, sabbe te appamādamūlakā appamādasamosaraṇā, appamādo tesaṃ dhammānaṃ aggamakkhāyati.

Whatever states there are that are skilful, partaking of the skilful, siding with the skilful, all of them are rooted in heedfulness, they converge in heedfulness, and heedfulness is reckoned as the foremost among them.


♦ The Dhammapada has its own full Chapter II on the topic of appamāda.

♦ At AN 4.116, appamāda is recomended to abandon the threefold duccarita and micchā·diṭṭhi, and at AN 4.117 to prevent the three akusala·mūlas from taking over the mind as well as to ward off intoxication (mada).

♦ Miscellaneous quotes about appamāda:

AN 10.68

yassa kassaci appamādo atthi kusalesu dhammesu, tassa yā ratti vā divaso vā āgacchati, vuddhiyeva pāṭikaṅkhā kusalesu dhammesu no parihāni.

For one who is heedful in skilful mental states, whether night or day comes, only growth and not deterioration in skilful mental states is to be expected.


SN 1.36

appamādañca medhāvī, dhanaṃ seṭṭhaṃva rakkhati.

A wise man guards heedfulness as his foremost treasure.


AN 6.19

‘appamattā viharissāma, tikkhaṃ maraṇassatiṃ bhāvessāma āsavānaṃ khayāyā’ti.

We will remain heedful, we will develop mindfulness of death keenly for the destruction of mental impurities.


♦ Miscellaneous quotes about lay practice:

AN 6.53

appamādo eko dhammo bhāvito bahulīkato ubho atthe samadhiggayha tiṭṭhati: diṭṭhadhammikañceva atthaṃ yo ca attho samparāyiko.

Heedfulness is the one thing that, when developed and pursued, can bring both kinds of benefit: the benefit in the visible world and the benefit in the future life.


AN 5.213

sīlavā sīlasampanno appamādādhikaraṇaṃ mahantaṃ bhogakkhandhaṃ adhigacchati.

The virtuous endowed with virtue accumulates much wealth thanks to heedfulness.


SN 3.18

“appamattassa te, mahārāja, viharato appamādaṃ upanissāya, attāpi gutto rakkhito bhavissati: itthāgārampi guttaṃ rakkhitaṃ bhavissati, kosakoṭṭhāgārampi guttaṃ rakkhitaṃ bhavissatī”ti

When, Mahārāja, you remain heedful, with heedfulness for support, you yourself will be guarded and protected, your retinue of women will be guarded and protected, your treasury and storehouse will be guarded and protected.



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appicchatā: [appa+iccha+]

1) litt: fewness of desires; fact of being easily satisfied, of desiring little.

2) modesty, unpretentiousness.

The word is close in meaning to santuṭṭhitā. The antonym is mahicchatā.

♦ At MN 4, appicchatā is opposed to lābha·sakkāra·siloka nikāmayati (desiring gain, honor and fame):

na kho panāhaṃ lābhasakkārasilokaṃ nikāmayamāno araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi; appicchohamasmi. ye hi vo ariyā appicchā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti tesamahaṃ aññataro’ti.

But I do not resort to distant forest lodgings desirous of gain, honor or fame; I am of few desires. I resort to distant forest lodgings being one among those who are noble and of few desires.


♦ At AN 8.23, appicchatā is referred to as not desiring others to know about one's own good qualities:

appiccho so, bhikkhu, kulaputto santeyeva attani kusaladhamme na icchati parehi ñāyamāne.

That son a family, bhikkhu, has few desires, since he does not desire that others would know his inner wholesome qualities.


AN 8.30 defines the term along the same line, with direct reference to some of those qualities.

♦ At AN 1.63, appicchatā is presented as one of the core qualities to be developed:

“nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, aññaṃ ekadhammampi samanupassāmi yena anuppannā vā kusalā dhammā uppajjanti uppannā vā akusalā dhammā parihāyanti yathayidaṃ, bhikkhave, appicchatā.

Bhikkhus, I do not see a single other quality on account of which unarisen wholesome qualities arise and arisen unwholesome qualities disappear so much as fewness of desires.


AN 1.119

“nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, aññaṃ ekadhammampi samanupassāmi yo evaṃ saddhammassa ṭhitiyā asammosāya anantaradhānāya saṃvattati yathayidaṃ, bhikkhave, appicchatā.

Bhikkhus, I do not see a single other quality that leads to the prolongation, non-confusion and non-disappearence of the authentic Dhamma so much as fewness of desires.



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āraddhavīriya: [āraddha+vīriya]

1) (n:) aroused energy

2) (n:) one who is energetic, who has aroused energy

3) (adj:) energetic, of/with aroused energy. Bala·sampanna (possessing strength) is a synonym (AN 3.97) and kusīta (lazy) is the antonym (SN 12.22 below). Asallīna (unflagging, tireless) is a synonym for āraddha (e.g. at MN 4). The associated noun is vīriy·ārambha. Being āraddha·vīriya is defined in two major ways. The general definition is as follows (e.g. at AN 8.30):

Bhikkhu āraddha·vīriyo viharati a·kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya, kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ upasampadāya, thāmavā daḷha·parakkamo anikkhitta·dhuro kusalesu dhammesu

A bhikkhu remains with aroused energy, for abandoning unskilful mental states, for acquiring skilful mental states, he is steadfast, firm in his effort, without relaxing from his duty regarding skilful mental states.

Another definition, more impressive, is sometimes given (e.g. at SN 21.3):

‘āraddhavīriyo āraddhavīriyoti, bhante, vuccati. kittāvatā nu kho, bhante, āraddhavīriyo hotī’ti? ... bhikkhu āraddha·vīriyo viharati: ‘kāmaṃ taco ca nhāru ca aṭṭhī ca avasissatu, sarīre upasussatu maṃsa·lohitaṃ, yaṃ taṃ purisa·thāmena purisa·vīriyena purisa·parakkamena pattabbaṃ na taṃ a·pāpuṇitvā vīriyassa saṇṭhānaṃ bhavissatī’ti.

'One with aroused energy, one with aroused energy', Bhante, is it said. But how, Bhante, is one with aroused energy? ... A bhikkhu remains with aroused energy: 'Let only my skin, sinews, and bones remain, let the flesh and blood in my body dry up, but there will be no relaxation of my energy without having attained what is to be gained by manly steadfastness, by manly energy, by manly effort.'

♦ At SN 48.50, being āraddha·vīriya is seen as a consequence of having saddhā and as being a basis for developping sati, and then in turn samādhi.

♦ According to AN 1.18, being āraddha·vīriya, destroys and prevents the arising of thīna·middhā, which is one of the five nīvaraṇas.

♦ According to AN 1.61, being āraddha·vīriya, is the best way to foster kusalā dhammā and to remove akusalā dhammā.

♦ According to MN 118, in one who is āraddha·vīriya appears pīti nirāmisa (unworldly exaltation).

♦ Probably the most inspiring words about arousing energy are given at SN 12.22:

“dukkhaṃ, bhikkhave, kusīto viharati vokiṇṇo pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi, mahantañca sadatthaṃ parihāpeti. āraddhavīriyo ca kho, bhikkhave, sukhaṃ viharati pavivitto pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi, mahantañca sadatthaṃ paripūreti. na, bhikkhave, hīnena aggassa patti hoti. aggena ca kho, bhikkhave, aggassa patti hoti.

A lazy person, bhikkhus, dwells in suffering, full of evil unskilful mental states, and great is the personal welfare that he loses. But a person of aroused energy dwells in well-being, secluded from evil unskilful mental states, and great is the personal welfare that he achieves. It is not by the inferior that the supreme is obtained; rather, it is by the supreme that the supreme is obtained.

maṇḍapeyyamidaṃ, bhikkhave, brahmacariyaṃ, satthā sammukhībhūto. tasmātiha, bhikkhave, vīriyaṃ ārabhatha appattassa pattiyā, anadhigatassa adhigamāya, asacchikatassa sacchikiriyāya. ‘evaṃ no ayaṃ amhākaṃ pabbajjā avañjhā bhavissati saphalā saudrayā. yesañca mayaṃ paribhuñjāma cīvara-piṇḍapātasenāsana-gilāna-ppaccaya-bhesajja-parikkhāraṃ tesaṃ te kārā amhesu mahapphalā bhavissanti mahānisaṃsā’ti. evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṃ.

This brahmic way, bhikkhus, is a beverage of cream; the Teacher is present. Therefore, bhikkhus, arouse your energy for the attainment of what has not yet been attained, for the achievement of what has not yet been attained, for the realization of what has not yet been attained, [thinking]: ‘In such a way this going forth of ours will not be barren, rather it will be fruitful and fertile; and when we use the robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicinal requisites [offered to us by others], these services they provide for us will be of great fruit and great benefit to them.’ Thus, bhikkhus, should you train yourselves.

attatthaṃ vā hi, bhikkhave, sampassamānena alameva appamādena sampādetuṃ; paratthaṃ vā hi, bhikkhave, sampassamānena alameva appamādena sampādetuṃ; ubhayatthaṃ vā hi, bhikkhave, sampassamānena alameva appamādena sampādetun”ti.

Seeing your own welfare, bhikkhus, is enough to strive with heedfulness; seeing the welfare of others is enough to strive with heedfulness; seeing the welfare of both is enough to strive with heedfulness.

♦ According to AN 6.55, acc·āraddha·vīriya (excess of energy) leads to uddhacca ('acc·āraddha·vīriyaṃ uddhaccāya saṃvattati') and according to MN 128, it can lead to falling away from samādhi, just as one would kill a quail by holding it too strongly by the neck. By the way, this could interestingly explain what happens at AN 9.35, where one also falls away from samādhi as a result of undertaking a wrong way to reach the second jhāna from the first. MN 128 also explains that being atilīna·vīriya (lacking energy) can lead to falling away from samādhi, just as one would let go of a quail by not holding it strongly enough.

Vīriy·indriya (spiritual faculty of energy) is defined as being āraddha·vīriya (SN 48.9).

♦ According to AN 10.76, being āraddha·vīriya renders one capable of abandoning uddhacca, a·saṃvara (non-restraint) and dus·sīla (unvirtuous behavior).

♦ At AN 4.11, continuously suppressing the three types of unskilful vitakkas in all the four postures is described as being āraddha·vīriya.

♦ At AN 4.12, having abandoned the five nīvaraṇas, having established sati, passaddhi and finally being samāhita is described as being āraddha·vīriya.

♦ According to AN 1.324 and AN 1.325, being āraddha·vīriya leads to dukkha in a badly expounded teaching (dur·akkhāta dhamma·vinaya) and to sukha in a well expounded teaching (sv·ākkhāta dhamma·vinaya).



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arahant: lit: 'a worthy one'. Derived from verb 'arahati' (to be worthy of, to deserve, to merit). It seems the term was already in use in India before the Buddha and used as an honorific title, particularly for samaṇas. Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, is also referred to as an arahant in Jain scriptures. In the context of the Buddha's teaching, it refers to an individual who has completed the path and will not be reborn after death. The suttas offer a great variety of ways to define an arahant. At the time of death, he enters Parinibbāna.



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arahatta: state of an arahant.



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arañña: forest, wilderness.

Arañña is one of nine vivitta senāsana (secluded lodgings) often cited in the suttas as proper places for practice (eg. MN 27, AN 9.40):

vivittaṃ senāsanaṃ bhajati araññaṃ rukkhamūlaṃ pabbataṃ kandaraṃ giriguhaṃ susānaṃ vanapatthaṃ abbhokāsaṃ palālapuñjaṃ.

He resorts to a secluded dwelling: the forest, the foot of a tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a forest thicket, a place out in the open, a heap of straw.

Often, the list is shortened as follows:

araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā nisīdati...

Having gone to the forest or at the foot of a tree or in an empty room, he seats down...

In a few occasions, it is mentioned that brahmins or sages live in leaf huts in the forest (araññ·āyatane paṇṇa·kuṭīsu), as at DN 27, MN 93 and SN 11.9, or that the Buddha or other monks live in forest huts (arañña·kuṭika), as at SN 4.20, MN 125 or MN 136.

♦ Being a forest dweller (āraññika) was held in very high esteem by the Buddha and according to SN 15.13, it seems that he saw this practice, together with others, as very helpful for liberation:

“ime kho tiṃsamattā pāveyyakā bhikkhū sabbe āraññikā sabbe piṇḍapātikā sabbe paṃsukūlikā sabbe tecīvarikā sabbe sasaṃyojanā. yaṃnūnāhaṃ imesaṃ tathā dhammaṃ deseyyaṃ yathā nesaṃ imasmiṃyeva āsane anupādāya āsavehi cittāni vimucceyyun”ti.

These thirty bhikkhus from Pāvā are all forest dwellers, almsfood eaters, cast-off rags wearers, three-robes-only users [but] still fettered. What if I taught them the Dhamma in such a way that their minds would be liberated from their impurities through non-attachment [while sitting] on those very seats?


At SN 16.5, the list is expanded with additional qualities:

· piṇḍapāt·ika (almsfood eater)

· paṃsu·kūl·ika (cast-off rags wearer)

· te·cīvar·ika (three-robes-only user)

· appiccha

· santuṭṭha

· pavivitta

· asaṃsaṭṭha (lonesome)

· āraddha·vīriya

“ahaṃ kho, bhante, dīgharattaṃ āraññiko ceva āraññikattassa ca vaṇṇavādī, piṇḍapātiko ceva piṇḍapātikattassa ca vaṇṇavādī, paṃsukūliko ceva paṃsukūlikattassa ca vaṇṇavādī, tecīvariko ceva tecīvarikattassa ca vaṇṇavādī, appiccho ceva appicchatāya ca vaṇṇavādī, santuṭṭho ceva santuṭṭhiyā ca vaṇṇavādī, pavivitto ceva pavivekassa ca vaṇṇavādī, asaṃsaṭṭho ceva asaṃsaggassa ca vaṇṇavādī, āraddhavīriyo ceva vīriyārambhassa ca vaṇṇavādī”ti.

Bhante, for a long time I have been a forest dweller and have praised dwelling in the forest. I have been an almsfood eater and have praised eating almsfood. I have been a cast-off rags wearer and have praised wearing cast off rags. I have been a three-robes-only user and have praised using only three robes. I have been of few desires and have praised being of few desires. I have been content and have praised being content. I have been reclusive and have praised being reclusive. I have been lonely and have praised being lonely. I have been of aroused energy and have praised being of aroused energy.


♦ Forest dwelling is often recommended to the monks, as at AN 5.114:

“ye te, ānanda, bhikkhū navā acirapabbajitā adhunāgatā imaṃ dhammavinayaṃ, te vo, ānanda, bhikkhū pañcasu dhammesu samādapetabbā nivesetabbā patiṭṭhāpetabbā. katamesu pañcasu?

Ananda, the new monks — those who have not long gone forth, who are newcomers in this Dhamma & Discipline — should be encouraged, exhorted, and established in these five things. Which five?

(...)

(...)

“‘etha tumhe, āvuso, āraññikā hotha, araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevathā’ti. iti kāyavūpakāse samādapetabbā nivesetabbā patiṭṭhāpetabbā.

'Come, friends, dwell in the forest. Resort to distant forest thicket lodgings.' Thus they should be encouraged, exhorted, & established in physical seclusion.


AN 1.378

“addhamidaṃ, bhikkhave, lābhānaṃ yadidaṃ āraññikattaṃ”ti.

This is truly a gain, bhikkhus: being a forest dweller.


AN 5.98

Pañcahi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu ānāpānassatiṃ āsevanto nacirasseva akuppaṃ paṭivijjhati. Katamehi pañcahi? (...) āraññako hoti pantasenāsano

Endowed with five qualities, a bhikkhu practicing mindfulness of breathing will in no long time penetrate the unshakable [state]. Which five? (...) he is a forest dweller, [resorting to] distant lodgings


♦ The benefits of dwelling in the forest are mentioned in various places, such as AN 2.31:

“dvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, atthavase sampassamāno araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi. katame dve? attano ca diṭṭhadhammasukhavihāraṃ sampassamāno, pacchimañca janataṃ anukampamāno.

Bhikkhus, I resort to distant forest thicket lodgings seeing two benefits. Which two? Seeing my own pleasant abiding in the visible world, and out of compassion for the new generation.


At MN 150, dwelling in the forest is considered a warrant for being a worthy bhikkhu.

“sace pana vo, gahapatayo, aññatitthiyā paribbājakā evaṃ puccheyyuṃ: ‘ke panāyasmantānaṃ ākārā, ke anvayā, yena tumhe āyasmanto evaṃ vadetha: addhā te āyasmanto vītarāgā vā rāgavinayāya vā paṭipannā, vītadosā vā dosavinayāya vā paṭipannā, vītamohā vā mohavinayāya vā paṭipannā’ti? evaṃ puṭṭhā tumhe, gahapatayo, tesaṃ aññatitthiyānaṃ paribbājakānaṃ evaṃ byākareyyātha: ‘tathā hi te āyasmanto araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti. natthi kho pana tattha tathārūpā cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā ye disvā disvā abhirameyyuṃ, natthi kho pana tattha tathārūpā sotaviññeyyā saddā ye sutvā sutvā abhirameyyuṃ, natthi kho pana tattha tathārūpā ghānaviññeyyā gandhā ye ghāyitvā ghāyitvā abhirameyyuṃ, natthi kho pana tattha tathārūpā jivhāviññeyyā rasā ye sāyitvā sāyitvā abhirameyyuṃ, natthi kho pana tattha tathārūpā kāyaviññeyyā phoṭṭhabbā ye phusitvā phusitvā abhirameyyuṃ. ime kho no, āvuso, ākārā, ime anvayā, yena mayaṃ evaṃ vadema: addhā te āyasmanto vītarāgā vā rāgavinayāya vā paṭipannā, vītadosā vā dosavinayāya vā paṭipannā, vītamohā vā mohavinayāya vā paṭipannā’ti.

And if, householders, heterodox spiritual wanderers ask you: 'And what are your reasons and with reference to what do you claim of those venerable ones: "Certainly, those venerable ones are devoid of lust or are practicing for the elimination of lust, they are devoid of aversion or are practicing for the elimination of aversion, they are devoid of delusion or are practicing for the elimination of delusion"?' If you are questioned thus, householders, you should answer to those heterodox spiritual wanderers: 'It is because those venerable ones resort to distant forest thicket lodgings, since there are no visible forms cognizable by the eye there such that, having seen them, they might delight in them; there are no sounds cognizable by the ear there such that, having heard them, they might delight in them; there are no smells cognizable by the nose there such that, having smelled them, they might delight in them; there are no tastes cognizable by the tongue there such that, having tasted them, they might delight in them; there are no bodily sensations cognizable by the body there such that, having felt them, they might delight in them; these, friends, are our reasons, it is with reference to this that we claim: "Certainly, those venerable ones are devoid of lust or are practicing for the elimination of lust, they are devoid of aversion or are practicing for the elimination of aversion, they are devoid of delusion or are practicing for the elimination of delusion".'


At MN 121, the perception of the forest that develops through forest dwelling is the basis for mental calm:

bhikkhu amanasikaritvā gāmasaññaṃ, amanasikaritvā manussasaññaṃ, araññasaññaṃ paṭicca manasi karoti ekattaṃ. Tassa araññasaññāya cittaṃ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati adhimuccati.

a bhikkhu, not directing his mind to the perception of villages, not directing his mind to the perception of humans, directs his mind to the oneness produced by the perception of the forest. His mind takes to that perception of the forest and grows confident, steady and settled.


At AN 6.42, the Buddha says he is pleased with a bhikkhu dwelling in the forest in three cases:

idha panāhaṃ, nāgita, bhikkhuṃ passāmi āraññikaṃ araññe pacalāyamānaṃ nisinnaṃ. tassa mayhaṃ, nāgita, evaṃ hoti: ‘idāni ayamāyasmā imaṃ niddākilamathaṃ paṭivinodetvā araññasaññaṃyeva manasi karissati ekattan’ti. tenāhaṃ, nāgita, tassa bhikkhuno attamano homi araññavihārena.

Nāgita, I see a forest dwelling bhikkhu sitting in the forest, dozing. It occurs to me: 'Soon this venerable one will dispel his sleepiness & fatigue and direct his mind only to the perception of the forest, {see MN 121 above} in a state of oneness.' And for this reason, I am pleased with that bhikkhu's dwelling in the forest.

“idha panāhaṃ, nāgita, bhikkhuṃ passāmi āraññikaṃ araññe asamāhitaṃ nisinnaṃ. tassa mayhaṃ, nāgita, evaṃ hoti: ‘idāni ayamāyasmā asamāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ samādahissati, samāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ anurakkhissatī’ti. tenāhaṃ, nāgita, tassa bhikkhuno attamano homi araññavihārena.

Furthermore, Nāgita, I see a forest dwelling bhikkhu sitting in the forest, unconcentrated. It occurs to me: 'Soon this venerable one will concentrate his unconcentrated mind, or protect his concentrated mind.' And for this reason, I am pleased with that bhikkhu's dwelling in the forest.

“idha panāhaṃ, nāgita, bhikkhuṃ passāmi āraññikaṃ araññe samāhitaṃ nisinnaṃ. tassa mayhaṃ, nāgita, evaṃ hoti: ‘idāni ayamāyasmā avimuttaṃ vā cittaṃ vimocessati, vimuttaṃ vā cittaṃ anurakkhissatī’ti. tenāhaṃ, nāgita, tassa bhikkhuno attamano homi araññavihārena.

Furthermore, Nāgita, I see a forest dwelling bhikkhu sitting in the forest, concentrated. It occurs to me: 'Soon this venerable one will liberate his unliberated mind, or protect his liberated mind.' And for this reason, I am pleased with that bhikkhu's dwelling in the forest.


♦ The fact that bhikkhus keep dwelling in the forest is very important, as stated at AN 7.23:

“yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū āraññakesu senāsanesu sāpekkhā bhavissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

As long as the bhikkhus will appreciate lodgings in the forest, one can expect their prosperity, not their decline.


AN 5.80

“puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhavissanti bhikkhū anāgatamaddhānaṃ senāsane kalyāṇakāmā. te senāsane kalyāṇakāmā samānā riñcissanti rukkhamūlikattaṃ, riñcissanti araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni; gāmanigamarājadhānīsu osaritvā vāsaṃ kappessanti, senāsanahetu ca anekavihitaṃ anesanaṃ appatirūpaṃ āpajjissanti.

Furthermore, bhikkhus, in the future there will be monks desirous of fine lodgings. They, desirous of fine lodgings, will abandon the practice of dwelling at the foot of a tree, they will abandon distant forest thicket lodgings, they will move to villages, towns, and royal capitals and take up residence there. For the sake of lodgings they will engage in many kinds of wrong and inappropriate things.


♦ But dwelling in the forest is nothing easy, as attested at MN 4:

durabhisambhavāni hi kho, brāhmaṇa, araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni, dukkaraṃ pavivekaṃ, durabhiramaṃ ekatte, haranti maññe mano vanāni samādhiṃ alabhamānassa bhikkhuno”ti.

It is difficult to endure distant forest thicket lodgings, it is difficult to practice seclusion, it is difficult to enjoy solitude. The forests, as it were, plunder the mind of a bhikkhu if he has not gained concentration.

The sutta then goes on to describe qualities that make forest dwelling difficult if not impossible, starting with lack of virtues, continuing with the five hindrances, and then miscellaneous qualities:

· a·parisuddha·kāya·kammantā (unpurified bodily conduct)

· a·parisuddha·vacī·kammantā (unpurified verbal conduct)

· a·parisuddha·mano·kammantā (unpurified mental conduct)

· a·parisuddh·ājīvā (unpurified livelihood)

· abhijjhālū kāmesu tibba·sā·rāgā (being covetous in sensuality and strongly passionate)

· byāpanna·cittā paduṭṭha·mana·saṅkappā (having a mind of ill will and intentions of hate)

· thīna·middha·pariyuṭṭhitā (being overcome by sloth and drowsiness)

· uddhatāvūpasanta·cittā (being restless with an unappeased mind)

· kaṅkhī vicikicchī (uncertain and doubting)

· att·ukkaṃsakā paravambhī (praising oneself and disparaging others)

· chambhī bhīruka·jātikā (subject to panic and terror)

· lābha·sakkāra·silokaṃ nikāmayamānā (desirous of honors, gain and fame)

· kusītā hīna·vīriyā (lazy and low in energy)

· muṭṭhas·satīsampajānā (unmindful and not clearly comprehending)

· samāhitā vibbhanta·cittā (unconcentrated with a wandering mind)

· dup·paññā eḷa·mūgā (of wrong wisdom, deaf-and-dumb - see MN 152)

A wonderful simile illustrates this difficulty at AN 10.99:

“durabhisambhavāni hi kho, upāli, araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni. dukkaraṃ pavivekaṃ durabhiramaṃ. ekatte haranti maññe mano vanāni samādhiṃ alabhamānassa bhikkhuno. yo kho, upāli, evaṃ vadeyya: ‘ahaṃ samādhiṃ alabhamāno araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevissāmī’ti, tassetaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: ‘saṃsīdissati vā uplavissati vā’ti.

It is difficult to endure distant forest thicket lodgings, Upāli, it is difficult to practice seclusion, it is difficult to enjoy solitude. The forests, as it were, plunder the mind of a bhikkhu if he has not gained concentration. If anyone should say: 'Although I have not gained concentration, I will resort to distant forest thicket lodgings', it can be expected that he will either sink down or [merely] float [on the surface].

“seyyathāpi, upāli, mahāudakarahado. atha āgaccheyya hatthināgo sattaratano vā aṭṭharatano vā. tassa evamassa: ‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ imaṃ udakarahadaṃ ogāhetvā kaṇṇa-saṃdhovikampi khiḍḍaṃ kīḷeyyaṃ piṭṭhi-saṃdhovikampi khiḍḍaṃ kīḷeyyaṃ. kaṇṇa-saṃdhovikampi khiḍḍaṃ kīḷitvā piṭṭhi-saṃdhovikampi khiḍḍaṃ kīḷitvā nhatvā ca pivitvā ca paccuttaritvā yena kāmaṃ pakkameyyan’ti. so taṃ udakarahadaṃ ogāhetvā kaṇṇa-saṃdhovikampi khiḍḍaṃ kīḷeyya piṭṭhi-saṃdhovikampi khiḍḍaṃ kīḷeyya; kaṇṇa-saṃdhovikampi khiḍḍaṃ kīḷitvā piṭṭhi-saṃdhovikampi khiḍḍaṃ kīḷitvā nhatvā ca pivitvā ca paccuttaritvā yena kāmaṃ pakkameyya. taṃ kissa hetu? mahā, upāli, attabhāvo gambhīre gādhaṃ vindati.

Imagine, Upāli, that there would be a large lake. A bull elephant would come, seven or eight cubits [high]. It would occur to him: 'What if, having entered this lake, I washed my ears by playing playfully, I washed my back by playing playfully; having washed my ears by playing playfully, having washed my back by playing playfully, having bathed, drunk and come out, I would go wherever I want.' He enters that lake, washes his ears by playing playfully, washes his back by playing playfully; having washed his ears by playing playfully, having washed his back by playing playfully, having bathed, drunk and come out, he goes wherever he wants. For what reason? Because his large body finds a footing in the depths.

“atha āgaccheyya saso vā biḷāro vā. tassa evamassa: ‘ko cāhaṃ, ko ca hatthināgo! yaṃnūnāhaṃ imaṃ udakarahadaṃ ogāhetvā kaṇṇasaṃdhovikampi khiḍḍaṃ kīḷeyyaṃ piṭṭhisaṃdhovikampi khiḍḍaṃ kīḷeyyaṃ; kaṇṇasaṃdhovikampi khiḍḍaṃ kīḷitvā piṭṭhisaṃdhovikampi khiḍḍaṃ kīḷitvā nhatvā ca pivitvā ca paccuttaritvā yena kāmaṃ pakkameyyan’ti. so taṃ udakarahadaṃ sahasā appaṭisaṅkhā pakkhandeyya. tassetaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: ‘saṃsīdissati vā uplavissati vā’ti. taṃ kissa hetu? paritto, upāli, attabhāvo gambhīre gādhaṃ na vindati. evamevaṃ kho, upāli, yo evaṃ vadeyya: ‘ahaṃ samādhiṃ alabhamāno araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevissāmī’ti, tassetaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: ‘saṃsīdissati vā uplavissati vā’ti.

Then a hare or a cat would come. It would occur to it: 'Why should a bull elephant be different from me? What if, having entered this lake, I washed my ears by playing playfully, I washed my back by playing playfully; having washed my ears by playing playfully, having washed my back by playing playfully, having bathed, drunk and come out, I would go wherever I want.' It would inconsiderately and thoughtlessly jump into the lake. It can be expected that it will either sink down or [merely] float [on the surface]. For what reason? Because its small body doesn't find a footing in the depths. In the same way, Upāli, if anyone should say: 'Although I have not gained concentration, I will resort to distant forest thicket lodgings', it can be expected that he will either sink down or [merely] float [on the surface].

Eventually, the Buddha even advises Upāli not to dwell in the forest:

iṅgha tvaṃ, upāli, saṅghe viharāhi. saṅghe te viharato phāsu bhavissatī”ti.

Come, Upāli, remain in the Saṅgha. Remaining in the Saṅgha, you will be at ease.


AN 4.262

“catūhi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu nālaṃ araññavanappatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevituṃ. katamehi catūhi? kāmavitakkena, byāpādavitakkena, vihiṃsāvitakkena, duppañño hoti jaḷo elamūgo — imehi kho, bhikkhave, catūhi dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu nālaṃ araññavanappatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevituṃ.

Endowed with [any of] four qualities, a monk isn't fit to stay in isolated forest & wilderness dwellings. Which four? [He is endowed] with thoughts of sensuality, with thoughts of ill will, with thoughts of harmfulness, and he is a person of weak discernment, dull, a drooling idiot. Endowed with [any of] these four qualities, a monk isn't fit to stay in isolated forest & wilderness dwellings.

“catūhi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu alaṃ araññavanappatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevituṃ. katamehi catūhi? nekkhammavitakkena, abyāpādavitakkena, avihiṃsāvitakkena, paññavā hoti ajaḷo anelamūgo — imehi kho, bhikkhave, catūhi dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu alaṃ araññavanappatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevitun”ti.

Endowed with four qualities, a monk is fit to stay in isolated forest & wilderness dwellings. Which four? [He is endowed] with thoughts of renunciation, with thoughts of non-ill will, with thoughts of harmlessness, and he is a discerning person, not dull, not a drooling idiot. Endowed with these four qualities, a monk is fit to stay in isolated forest & wilderness dwellings.


SN 35.46

“santi kho, migajāla, cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā. tañce bhikkhu abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati. tassa taṃ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhosāya tiṭṭhato uppajjati nandī . nandiyā sati sārāgo hoti; sārāge sati saṃyogo hoti. nandisaṃyojanasaṃyutto kho, migajāla, bhikkhu sadutiyavihārīti vuccati. ... santi ca kho, migajāla, jivhāviññeyyā rasā... santi ca kho, migajāla, manoviññeyyā dhammā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā. tañce bhikkhu abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati. tassa taṃ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhosāya tiṭṭhato uppajjati nandī. nandiyā sati sārāgo hoti; sārāge sati saṃyogo hoti. nandisaṃyojanasaṃyutto kho, migajāla, bhikkhu sadutiyavihārīti vuccati. evaṃvihārī ca, migajāla, bhikkhu kiñcāpi araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevati appasaddāni appanigghosāni vijanavātāni manussarāhasseyyakāni paṭisallānasāruppāni; atha kho sadutiyavihārīti vuccati. taṃ kissa hetu? taṇhā hissa dutiyā, sāssa appahīnā. tasmā sadutiyavihārī”ti vuccati.

"Migajala, there are forms cognizable via the eye — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing — and a monk relishes them, welcomes them, & remains fastened to them. As he relishes them, welcomes them, & remains fastened to them, delight arises. There being delight, he is impassioned. Being impassioned, he is fettered. A monk joined with the fetter of delight is said to be a person living with a companion. There are sounds cognizable via the ear... aromas cognizable via the nose... flavors cognizable via the tongue... tactile sensations cognizable via the body... ideas cognizable via the intellect — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing — and a monk relishes them, welcomes them, & remains fastened to them. As he relishes them, welcomes them, & remains fastened to them, delight arises. There being delight, he is impassioned. Being impassioned, he is fettered. A monk joined with the fetter of delight is said to be a person living with a companion. A person living in this way — even if he frequents isolated forest & wilderness dwellings, with an unpopulated atmosphere, lying far from humanity, appropriate for seclusion — is still said to be living with a companion. Why is that? Because the craving that is his companion has not been abandoned by him. Thus he is said to be a person living with a companion.



Bodhi leaf





ariya: (adj:) noble - (n:) a noble one.

The earliest evidence for the use of the word 'arya' (e.g. The Behistun Inscription, 6th century BCE) indicate that it was widely used to designate the Indo-Iranian people as well as their language. The word is also recognized as the origin of the country name 'Iran'. With the migration of Indo-Iranian people to India, the term was later used by the Indic people of the Vedic period to designate themselves, and as a religious distinction between those who worshiped the Vedic deities and performed sacrifices according to the established rules, and those who did not follow the Vedic religion. The word has been understood with a racial connotation by 19th century scholars among whom Rhys Davids (and subsequently in Nazi Germany), but modern scholars reject this interpretation.

Ariya as an adjective is juxtaposed 15 times in the four Nikāyas with niyyānika (leading out [to salvation], emancipatory). It can actually be understood as meaning 'leading to the end of dukkha', as explained at MN 12:

“tāyapi kho ahaṃ, sāriputta, iriyāya tāya paṭipadāya tāya dukkarakārikāya nājjhagamaṃ uttariṃ manussadhammā alamariyañāṇadassanavisesaṃ. taṃ kissa hetu? imissāyeva ariyāya paññāya anadhigamā, yāyaṃ ariyā paññā adhigatā ariyā niyyānikā, niyyāti takkarassa sammā dukkhakkhayāya.

"Yet, Sariputta, by such conduct, by such practice, by such performance of austerities, I did not attain any superhuman states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones. Why was that? Because I did not attain that noble wisdom which when attained is noble and emancipating and leads the one who practices in accordance with it to the complete destruction of suffering.


AN 10.107

“ahañca kho, bhikkhave, ariyaṃ dhovanaṃ desessāmi, yaṃ dhovanaṃ ekantanibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati, yaṃ dhovanaṃ āgamma jātidhammā sattā jātiyā parimuccanti, jarādhammā sattā jarāya parimuccanti, maraṇadhammā sattā maraṇena parimuccanti, soka-parideva-dukkha-domanass-upāyāsa-dhammā sattā soka-parideva-dukkha-domanass-upāyāsehi parimuccanti.

Bhikkhus, I will teach [you] a noble washing that leads exclusively to disenchantment, to detachment, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to awakening, to Extinction, a washing owing to which beings by nature subject to birth are liberated from birth, beings by nature subject to old age are liberated from old age; beings by nature subject to death are liberated from death; beings by nature subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, affliction and despair are liberated from sorrow, lamentation, pain, affliction and despair.


MN 26

“dvemā, bhikkhave, pariyesanā: ariyā ca pariyesanā, anariyā ca pariyesanā. katamā ca, bhikkhave, anariyā pariyesanā? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco attanā jātidhammo samāno jātidhammaṃyeva pariyesati, attanā jarādhammo samāno jarādhammaṃyeva pariyesati, attanā byādhidhammo samāno byādhidhammaṃyeva pariyesati, attanā maraṇadhammo samāno maraṇadhammaṃyeva pariyesati, attanā sokadhammo samāno sokadhammaṃyeva pariyesati, attanā saṃkilesadhammo samāno saṃkilesadhammaṃyeva pariyesati.

Bhikkhus, there are these two quests: ignoble quest & noble quest. And what is ignoble quest? Here someone, being himself subject to birth, goes after what is also subject to birth. Being himself subject to aging, he goes after what is also subject to aging. Being himself subject to illness, he goes after what is also subject to illness. Being himself subject to death, he goes after what is also subject to death. Being himself subject to sorrow, he goes after what is also subject to sorrow. Being himself subject to defilement, he goes after what is also subject to defilement.

...

...

“katamā ca, bhikkhave, ariyā pariyesanā? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco attanā jātidhammo samāno jātidhamme ādīnavaṃ viditvā ajātaṃ anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ nibbānaṃ pariyesati, attanā jarādhammo samāno jarādhamme ādīnavaṃ viditvā ajaraṃ anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ nibbānaṃ pariyesati, attanā byādhidhammo samāno byādhidhamme ādīnavaṃ viditvā abyādhiṃ anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ nibbānaṃ pariyesati, attanā maraṇadhammo samāno maraṇadhamme ādīnavaṃ viditvā amataṃ anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ nibbānaṃ pariyesati, attanā sokadhammo samāno sokadhamme ādīnavaṃ viditvā asokaṃ anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ nibbānaṃ pariyesati, attanā saṃkilesadhammo samāno saṃkilesadhamme ādīnavaṃ viditvā asaṃkiliṭṭhaṃ anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ nibbānaṃ pariyesati. ayaṃ, bhikkhave, ariyā pariyesanā.

And what, bhikkhus, is the noble quest? Here someone, being himself subject to birth, seeing the drawbacks of birth, goes after the unborn, supreme relief from the yoke: Extinction. Being himself subject to aging, seeing the drawbacks of aging, he goes after the aging-less, supreme relief from the yoke: Extinction. Being himself subject to illness, seeing the drawbacks of illness, he goes after the illness-less, supreme relief from the yoke: Extinction. Being himself subject to death, seeing the drawbacks of death, he goes after the deathless, supreme relief from the yoke: Extinction. Being himself subject to sorrow, seeing the drawbacks of sorrow, he goes after the sorrow-less, supreme relief from the yoke: Extinction. Being himself subject to defilement, seeing the drawbacks of defilement, he goes after the undefiled, supreme relief from the yoke: Extinction. This is the noble quest.


Ariya as a noun has been traditionally understood as designating an individual who is at least a sotāpanna. However, as is often the case, it appears that the term is used with a rather loose meaning in the suttas. Sometimes, the Buddha himself is referred to as the Noble One (MN 137, SN 56.28). Some suttas imply that the word designates arahants. At MN 60, the arahants are referred to as ariyas:

santaṃyeva kho pana paraṃ lokaṃ ‘natthi paro loko’ti āha; ye te arahanto paralokaviduno tesamayaṃ paccanīkaṃ karoti...

Because there actually is the next world, when he says that 'There is no next world,' he makes himself an opponent to those arahants who know the next world...

ayañca... ariyānaṃ paccanīkatā

this... opposition to the noble ones


At AN 7.91 and 92, a noble one is described as one who is either 'far remote from' (in the Burmese edition) or 'having detroyed the enemy' (in the PTS edition), i.e. the three lower saṃyojanas which are abandoned by a sotāpanna, but also further the three akusala·mūlas that are abandoned only by an arahant (cf. SN 22.106, SN 38.2 etc.) and māna, which is one of the five saṃyojanas that are only abandoned by an arahant:

AN 7.91

“sattannaṃ, bhikkhave, dhammānaṃ ārakattā-(Burmese Edition)/arīhatattā-(PTS Edition) ariyo hoti. katamesaṃ sattannaṃ? sakkāyadiṭṭhi ārakā hoti, vicikicchā ārakā hoti, sīlabbataparāmāso ārako hoti, rāgo ārako hoti, doso ārako hoti, moho ārako hoti, māno ārako hoti.

Bhikkhus, it is by keeping far away from/the enemy-destruction of seven things that one is a noble one. Which seven? The view of self-existence is far away/destroyed; uncertainty is far away/destroyed; attachment to religious observances is far away/destroyed; avidity is far away/destroyed; aversion is far away/destroyed; delusion is far away/destroyed; self-esteem is far away/destroyed.



The exact same description is given in the next sutta with reference to arahantship:

AN 7.92

“sattannaṃ, bhikkhave, dhammānaṃ ārakattā arahā hoti. katamesaṃ sattannaṃ? sakkāyadiṭṭhi ārakā hoti, vicikicchā ārakā hoti, sīlabbataparāmāso ārako hoti, rāgo ārako hoti, doso ārako hoti, moho ārako hoti, māno ārako hoti. imesaṃ kho, bhikkhave, sattannaṃ dhammānaṃ ārakattā arahā hotī”ti.

Bhikkhus, it is by keeping far away from seven things that one is a noble one. Which seven? The view of self-existence is far away; uncertainty is far away; attachment to religious observances is far away; avidity is far away; aversion is far away; delusion is far away; self-esteem is far away.


Similarly, at MN 39 a noble one and an arahant are described in exactly the same terms:

“kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ariyo hoti? ārakāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā, saṃkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā, āyatiṃ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ariyo hoti.

"And how is a monk noble? His evil, unskillful qualities that are defiled, that lead to further becoming, create trouble, ripen in stress, and lead to future birth, aging, & death have gone far away. This is how a monk is noble.

“kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arahaṃ hoti? ārakāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā, saṃkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā, āyatiṃ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arahaṃ hotī”ti.

"And how is a monk an arahant? His evil, unskillful qualities that are defiled, that lead to further becoming, create trouble, ripen in stress, and lead to future birth, aging, & death have gone far away. This is how a monk is an arahant."


But on the other hand, some suttas make it clear that a noble one is not always an arahant:

AN 4.190

“kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ariyappatto hoti? idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ‘Idaṃ dukkha’nti yathā·bhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkha·samudayo’ti yathā·bhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkha·nirodho’ti yathā·bhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā’ti yathā·bhūtaṃ pajānāti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ariyappatto hotī”ti.

And how has a bhikkhu attained [the state of] a noble one? Here, a bhikkhu understands as it occurs: ‘This is suffering.’ He understands as it occurs: ‘This is the origin of suffering.’ He understands as it occurs: ‘This is the cessation of suffering.’ He understands as it occurs: ‘This is the path leading to the cessation of suffering.’ It is in this way that a bhikkhu has attained [the state of] a noble one.


SN 48.53

“katamo ca, bhikkhave, pariyāyo yaṃ pariyāyaṃ āgamma sekho bhikkhu sekhabhūmiyaṃ ṭhito ‘sekhosmī’ti pajānāti? idha, bhikkhave, sekho bhikkhu ‘idaṃ dukkhan’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti — ayampi kho, bhikkhave, pariyāyo yaṃ pariyāyaṃ āgamma sekho bhikkhu sekhabhūmiyaṃ ṭhito ‘sekhosmī’ti pajānāti”.

And what, bhikkhus, is the method coming to which a bhikkhu who is a learner, standing at the level of a learner, understands: ‘I am a trainee’? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is a learner understands as it occurs: ‘This is suffering’; he understands as it occurs: ‘This is the origin of suffering’; he understands as it occurs: ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; he understands as it occurs: ‘This is the path leading to the cessation of suffering.’ This is a method coming to which a bhikkhu who is a learner, standing at the level of a learner, understands: ‘I am a learner.’


As made clear later on in that same sutta (not provided here), a learner (sekha) is one who is not an arahant yet. Thus, AN 4.190 and SN 48.53 taken together show that a noble one is not necessarily an arahant. Some suttas also indicate that a sotāpanna would be referred to as 'a noble one':

SN 12.27

ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, ariyasāvako diṭṭhisampanno itipi, dassanasampanno itipi, āgato imaṃ saddhammaṃ itipi, passati imaṃ saddhammaṃ itipi, sekkhena ñāṇena samannāgato itipi, sekkhāya vijjāya samannāgato itipi, dhammasotaṃ samāpanno itipi, ariyo nibbedhikapañño itipi, amatadvāraṃ āhacca tiṭṭhati itipī”ti.

This, bhikkhus, is called a noble disciple who is accomplished in view, accomplished in vision, who has arrived at this authentic Dhamma, who sees this authentic Dhamma, who is endowed with a learner's knowledge, a learner's correct knowledge, who has entered the stream of the Dhamma, a noble one with discriminating discernment, one who stands knocking at the door of the Deathless.


Here the expression 'dhamma·sotaṃ samāpanno' quite obviously describes a sot·āpanna. Moreover, SN 56.36 states that one accomplished in view (diṭṭhi·sampanno) understands the four noble truths as they occur, and AN 10.63 explains that one accomplished in view has reached certainty about the Buddha and is at least sotāpannas. Therefore, it can be concluded that the following expressions may be considered equivalent: being an ariya, being a sotāpanna, being accomplished in view (diṭṭhi·sampanno) and understanding the four noble truths as they occur.

♦ The suttas occasionally mention some characteristics of ariyas:

SN 11.25

akkodho avihiṃsā ca, ariyesu ca vasatī sadā

Non-anger and harmlessness always dwell in the noble ones


SN 35.119

sukhaṃ diṭṭhamariyebhi, sakkāyassa nirodhanaṃ

The noble ones have seen as pleasantness the ceasing of personality


♦ Occasionally, the epithet ariya changes the meaning of the related word in a way that goes beyond merely adding to it the notion of 'leading to the end of dukkha'. Thus, noble silence (ariya tuṇhī·bhāva) means the second jhāna:

SN 21.1

‘ariyo tuṇhībhāvo, ariyo tuṇhībhāvoti vuccati. katamo nu kho ariyo tuṇhībhāvo’ti? tassa mayhaṃ āvuso, etadahosi — ‘idha bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. ayaṃ vuccati ariyo tuṇhībhāvo’ti.

'"Noble silence, noble silence," it is said. But what is noble silence?' Then the thought occurred to me, 'There is the case where a monk, with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, enters & remains in the second jhāna: rapture & pleasure born of concentration, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation — internal assurance. This is called noble silence.'


AN 4.251 & 253, AN 8.67 & 68 state that factual 'declarations' (vohāra) are noble.

♦ The Buddha often redefines certain concepts 'in the discipline of the noble ones' (ariyassa vinaye).

Death (maraṇa) means disrobing, and deadly suffering (maraṇa·matta dukkha) means a certain defiled offence (aññataraṃ saṃkiliṭṭhaṃ āpattiṃ), i.e. a pārājika or a saṅghādisesa āpatti (MN 105, SN 20.10).

The four jhānas are called 'pleasant abidings in the visible world' (diṭṭha·dhamma·sukha·vihāra), e.g. at MN 8.

Singing is wailing, dancing is madness and laughing a long time showing the teeth is childish (AN 3.108).

A poor person 'in the discipline of the noble ones' is one who doesn't have saddhā, hiri, ottappa, vīriya and paññā (AN 6.45).

'The world' (loka) means the five kāma·guṇas (AN 9.38) or whatever is subject to disintegration (paloka·dhamma), at SN 35.67.

'Purity' (or 'purification', soceyya) means the ten kusala kamma·pathas (AN 10.176).

'A thorn' (kaṇṭaka) is whatever in the world has a pleasing and agreeable nature (yaṃ loke piya·rūpaṃ sāta·rūpaṃ), at SN 35.197.

♦ What is ignoble (an·ariya) can be defined as what does not lead to nibbāna:

AN 10.107

etaṃ, bhikkhave, dhovanaṃ hīnaṃ gammaṃ pothujjanikaṃ anariyaṃ anatthasaṃhitaṃ na nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṃvattati.

This 'washing' is inferior, vulgar, belonging to ordinary people, ignoble, not beneficial, and it does not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to awakening, to Extinction.


Sense pleasures are typically ignoble:

MN 66

yaṃ kho, udāyi, ime pañca kāmaguṇe paṭicca uppajjati sukhaṃ somanassaṃ idaṃ vuccati kāmasukhaṃ miḷhasukhaṃ puthujjanasukhaṃ anariyasukhaṃ.

Now, Udāyin, the pleasure and mental pleasantness that arise dependent on these five strings of sensuality are called sensual pleasure, a filthy pleasure, a worldly pleasure, an ignoble pleasure.


SN 56.11 most notably explains that both the pursuit of happiness in sensuality and that of mortification are ignoble:

Yo c·āyaṃ kāmesu kāma·sukh·allik·ānuyogo hīno gammo pothujjaniko an·ariyo an·attha·saṃhito, yo c·āyaṃ attakilamath·ānuyogo dukkho an·ariyo an·attha·saṃhito.

On one hand, the pursuit of hedonism in sensuality, which is inferior, vulgar, common, ignoble, deprived of benefit, and on the other hand the devotion to self-mortification, which is painful, ignoble, deprived of benefit.


At MN 122, the tiracchāna·kathā are said to be ignoble. At AN 6.30, all the following are considered ignoble: the sight of an elephant, a horse, a jewel, or else of a samaṇa or a brahmin of wrong view; the hearing of the sound of a drum, of lutes, of singing, or else of the Dhamma of a samaṇa or a brahmin of wrong view; the gain of a son, a wife, wealth or goods, or else the gain of faith in a samaṇa or a brahmin of wrong view; the training in elephantry, in horsemanship, in chariotry, in archery, in swordsmanship, or else training under a samaṇa or a brahmin of wrong view; the service to an aristocrat, a brahmin, a householder, or else to a samaṇa or a brahmin of wrong view; the recollection of the gain of a son, a wife, or wealth, or else of a samaṇa or a brahmin of wrong view.

♦ The suttas often warn against misconduct towards ariyas.

SN 11.24

yam·ariya·garahī nirayaṃ upeti,
vācaṃ manañca paṇidhāya pāpakan”ti.

He who blames the noble ones,
Having set evil speech and mind, goes to hell.


The following sentence frequently appears in the suttas, as part of the sattānaṃ cut·ūpapāta·ñāṇa formula (available here):

“ime vata bhonto sattā... ariyānaṃ upavādakā... te kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapannā

Those esteemed beings [who were]... revilers of noble ones... at the breakup of the body, after death, have reappeared in a state of loss, in a bad destination, in perdition, or in hell


AN 11.6 explains what would happen to such a person:

AN 11.6

“yo so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu akkosako paribhāsako ariyūpavādo sabrahmacārīnaṃ, aṭṭhānametaṃ anavakāso yaṃ so ekādasannaṃ byasanānaṃ aññataraṃ byasanaṃ na nigaccheyya. katamesaṃ ekādasannaṃ?

“Bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is one who insults, disparages his fellows in the brahmic life, reviling the noble ones, it cannot be, it is impossible that he will not undergo one or the other of these eleven misfortunes. What eleven?

anadhigataṃ nādhigacchati,
adhigatā parihāyati,
saddhammassa na vodāyanti,
saddhammesu vā adhimāniko hoti,
anabhirato vā brahmacariyaṃ carati,
aññataraṃ vā saṃkiliṭṭhaṃ āpattiṃ āpajjati,
sikkhaṃ vā paccakkhāya hīnāyāvattati,
gāḷhaṃ vā rogātaṅkaṃ phusati,
ummādaṃ vā pāpuṇāti cittakkhepaṃ vā,
sammūḷho kālaṃ karoti,
kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati.

He does not achieve what he has not yet achieved,
he falls away from what he has achieved,
his good qualities are not purified,
he overestimates his good qualities,
he lives the brahmic life dissatisfied,
he commits a certain impure offense,
he gives up the training and returns to the inferior life,
he catches a severe illness,
he goes mad and loses his mind,
he dies confused,
or at the breakup of the body, after death, he reappears in a state of loss, in a bad destination, in perdition, or in hell.



Bodhi leaf





ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga: [ariya aṭṭha+aṅga+ika magga]

noble eightfold path.

The expression and its factors (aṅgā) are explained in full detail at SN 45.8:

1. sammā·diṭṭhi

2. sammā·saṅkappa

3. sammā·vācā

4. sammā·kammanta

5. sammā·ājīva

6. sammā·vāyāma

7. sammā·sati

8. sammā·samādhi



♦ The ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga is most famously introduced at SN 56.11 as the Middle Way (majjhimā paṭipadā), i.e. the path avoiding both hedonism and self-mortification:

SN 56.11

Dve·me, bhikkhave, antā pabbajitena na sevitabbā. Katame dve? Yo c·āyaṃ kāmesu kāma·sukh·allik·ānuyogo hīno gammo pothujjaniko an·ariyo an·attha·saṃhito, yo c·āyaṃ attakilamath·ānuyogo dukkho an·ariyo an·attha·saṃhito. Ete kho, bhikkhave, ubho ante an·upagamma majjhimā paṭipadā tathāgatena abhisambuddhā cakkhu·karaṇī ñāṇa·karaṇī upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati.

These two extremes, bhikkhus, should not be adopted by one who has gone forth from the home life. Which two? On one hand, the devotion to hedonism towards sensuality, which is inferior, vulgar, common, ignoble, deprived of benefit, and on the other hand the devotion to self-mortification, which is painful, ignoble, deprived of benefit. Without going to these two extremes, bhikkhus, the Tathāgata has fully awaken to the Middle Way, which produces vision, which produces knowledge, and leads to appeasement, to direct knowledge, to awakening, to Nibbāna.


♦ The ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga is also introduced later on in that same sutta as the fourth ariya·sacca:

Idaṃ kho pana, bhikkhave, dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariya·saccaṃ: ayam·eva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, seyyathidaṃ: sammā·diṭṭhi sammā·saṅkappo sammā·vācā sammā·kammanto sammā·ājīvo sammā·vāyāmo sammā·sati sammā·samādhi.

Furthermore, bhikkhus, this is the noble truth of path leading to the cessation of suffering: just this noble eightfold path, that is to say: right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration.


♦ As explained above at SN 56.11, the ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga is what leads to nibbāna. At SN 45.62, the former leads towards the latter just as the river Ganges slants, slopes, and inclines towards the east (seyyathāpi gaṅgā nadī pācīna·ninnā pācīna·poṇā pācīna·pabbhārā). At SN 45.86, the path is like a tree slanting, sloping and inclining towards the east (seyyathāpi rukkho pācīna·ninno pācīna·poṇo pācīna·pabbhāro) and that could only fall towards that direction if it were to be cut at the foot. It is also said to be the way leading to amata (amata·gāmi·maggo, SN 45.7), or to the unconditioned (a·saṅkhata·gāmi·maggo, SN 43.11).

♦ The ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga has its own entire saṃyutta (SN 45), that is rich in similes and explanations.

♦ The ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga is given various designations. At MN 19, it is called 'The peaceful and safe path to be followed with exaltation' (khemo maggo sovatthiko pīti·gamanīyo). It is often said to be the brahmacariya (e.g. SN 45.6), at SN 45.35 it is asceticism (sāmañña), at SN 45.36 brahminhood (brahmañña). At SN 12.65, it is the ancient path, the ancient road traveled by the sammā·Sambuddhā of the past. At SN 35.191, it is like a raft to cross over from identity to 'the other shore', which stands for nibbāna. At SN 45.4, after Ānanda sees a brahmin on a luxurious chariot and calls it a 'brahmic vehicle' (brahma·yāna), the Buddha says that is actually a designation for the ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga, along with the 'Dhamma vehicle' (dhamma·yāna) and the 'supreme victory in battle' (anuttara saṅgāma·vijaya). The ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga is also called rightness (sammatta, SN 45.21), kusalā dhammā (SN 45.22), the right way (sammā·paṭipada, SN 45.23) and right practice (sammā·paṭipatti, SN 45.31).

♦ The ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga is part of a set of 37 dhammas which are sometimes listed together (e.g. at AN 10.90, SN 22.81). They are sometimes called the bodhipakkhiyā dhammā, although this expression doesn't have a strict definition in the suttas and is loosely used to describe other sets. The ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga is also said at SN 45.155 to develop those bodhi·pakkhiya·dhammā.

♦ Each factor (aṅga) of the path is said to lead to the next:


AN 10.103

“sammattaṃ, bhikkhave, āgamma ārādhanā hoti, no virādhanā. kathañca, bhikkhave, sammattaṃ āgamma ārādhanā hoti, no virādhanā? sammādiṭṭhikassa, bhikkhave, sammāsaṅkappo pahoti, sammāsaṅkappassa sammāvācā pahoti, sammāvācassa sammākammanto pahoti, sammākammantassa sammāājīvo pahoti, sammāājīvassa sammāvāyāmo pahoti, sammāvāyāmassa sammāsati pahoti, sammāsatissa sammāsamādhi pahoti.

Having come to rightness, bhikkhus, there is success, not failure. And how, bhikkhus, is it that having come to rightness, there is success, not failure? For one of right view, right thought arises. For one of right thought, right speech arises. For one of right speech, right action arises. For one of right action, right livelihood arises. For one of right livelihood, right effort arises. For one of right effort, right mindfulness arises. For one of right mindfulness, right concentration arises.


A similar progression is also notably found at SN 45.1. AN 7.45 states that all the other seven factors of the path are the 'supports' (upanisa) and 'accessories' (parikkhāra) of sammā·samādhi. MN 117 further explains how the factors interact, according to the following pattern:


MN 117

“tatra, bhikkhave, sammādiṭṭhi pubbaṅgamā hoti. kathañca, bhikkhave, sammādiṭṭhi pubbaṅgamā hoti? micchāsaṅkappaṃ ‘micchāsaṅkappo’ti pajānāti, sammāsaṅkappaṃ ‘sammāsaṅkappo’ti pajānāti, sāssa hoti sammādiṭṭhi.

Therein, bhikkhus, right view is the forerunner. And how is right view the forerunner? One understands wrong thought as wrong thought and right thought as right thought: this is one's right view.

...

...

so micchāsaṅkappassa pahānāya vāyamati, sammāsaṅkappassa upasampadāya, svāssa hoti sammāvāyāmo. so sato micchāsaṅkappaṃ pajahati, sato sammāsaṅkappaṃ upasampajja viharati; sāssa hoti sammāsati. itiyime tayo dhammā sammāsaṅkappaṃ anuparidhāvanti anuparivattanti, seyyathidaṃ sammādiṭṭhi, sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati.

One makes an effort to abandon wrong thought and to acquire right thought: this is one's right effort. One abandons wrong thought mindfully, and acquires and remains in right thought mindfully: this is one's right mindfulness. Thus these three things rotate and circle around right thought, that is, right view, right effort, and right mindfulness.



♦ The enumeration of each path factors is sometimes punctuated by four different formulas. The first one is found for example at SN 45.2 and is in fact mainly used with the bojjhaṅgas, and occasionally with (spiritual) indriyas or balas: 'based upon seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, maturing in release' (viveka·nissita virāga·nissita nirodha·nissita vossagga·pariṇāmi).

The second formula can be found at SN 45.109 and says: 'which has the removal of avidity as its final goal, the removal of hatred as its final goal, the removal of delusion as its final goal' (rāga·vinaya·pariyosāna dosa·vinaya·pariyosāna moha·vinaya·pariyosāna).

The third one is found for example at SN 45.122 and says: 'which has the Deathless as its ground, the Deathless as its destination, the Deathless as its final goal' (amat·ogadha amata·parāyana amata·pariyosāna).

The fourth is found for example at SN 45.133 and says: 'which slants towards Nibbāna, slopes towards Nibbāna, inclines towards Nibbāna' (nibbāna·ninna nibbāna·poṇa nibbāna·pabbhāra).

♦ The ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga, if unarisen, does not arise apart from the appearance of a Buddha (n·āññatra tathāgatassa pātubhāvā arahato sammāsambuddhassa, SN 45.14) or the Discipline of a Sublime one (n·āññatra sugata·vinaya, SN 45.15).

♦ At SN 55.5, the ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga is what defines sotāpatti, since sota (the stream) is the ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga itself, and a sotāpanna is one who possesses it:


SN 55.5

— “‘soto, soto’ti hidaṃ, sāriputta, vuccati. katamo nu kho, sāriputta, soto”ti?

— It said: 'The stream, the stream', Sāriputta. What now, Sāriputta, is 'the stream'?

— “ayameva hi, bhante, ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo soto

— Bhante, the stream is just this noble eightfold path

...

...

— “‘sotāpanno, sotāpanno’ti hidaṃ, sāriputta, vuccati. katamo nu kho, sāriputta, sotāpanno”ti?

— It said: 'A stream-enterer, a stream-enterer', Sāriputta. What now, Sāriputta, is 'a stream-enterer'?

— “yo hi, bhante, iminā ariyena aṭṭhaṅgikena maggena samannāgato ayaṃ vuccati sotāpanno

— Bhante, whoever is possessed of this noble eightfold path is called a stream-enterer



♦ At MN 126, the 8 factors of the ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga are presented as a technology of the mind ('a proper method for procuring fruit': yoni hesā phalassa adhigamāya) whose results do not depend on making wishes, but instead rely solely on the laws of nature, which is illustrated by how one gets sesame oil by using the right technique (pressing seeds sprinkled with water), how one gets milk (by milking a recently calved cow), butter (by churning curd), or fire (by rubbing a dry, sapless, piece of wood with a proper fire-stick).

♦ At AN 4.237, the 8 factors of the ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga constitute 'kamma that is neither dark nor bright with neither-dark-nor-bright result, that leads to the destruction of kamma' (kammaṃ a·kaṇhā·sukkaṃ a·kaṇhā·sukka·vipākaṃ, kamma·kkhayāya saṃvattati).

♦ The ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga is not seldom augmented to become a tenfold set, with the addition of sammā·ñāṇa and sammā·vimutti. SN 45.26 seems to indicate that these two factors are relevant only for the arahant, as they are what makes the difference between a sappurisa and someone who is better than a sappurisa (sappurisena sappurisataro).

♦ Ten phenomena are said to be the precursors for the arising of the ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga, the first seven according to the following simile:

sūriyassa, bhikkhave, udayato etaṃ pubbaṅgamaṃ etaṃ pubbanimittaṃ, yadidaṃ, aruṇuggaṃ; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno ariyassa aṭṭhaṅgikassa maggassa uppādāya etaṃ pubbaṅgamaṃ etaṃ pubbanimmittaṃ...

This, bhikkhus, is the forerunner and foretoken of the rising of the sun, that is, the dawn. In the same way, bhikkhus, for a bhikkhu this is the forerunner and foretoken of the arising of the noble eightfold path...

In each case, it is said that when a bhikkhu satisfies the condition, 'it is expected that he will develop the noble eightfold path, that he will cultivate the noble eightfold path (pāṭikaṅkhaṃ ariyaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ bhāvessati, ariyaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ bahulīkarissati).

1. Mentioned most often is kalyāṇa·mittatā (with the above sunrise simile at SN 45.49). It is most famously said at SN 45.2 to be the entire brahmacariya (sakalam·ev·idaṃ brahmacariyaṃ), since it can be expected from one who develops it that he will practice the ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga, all the more that as we have seen earlier (e.g. at SN 45.6), brahmacariya is also defined as the ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga itself. We find as well a formula reminiscent of the suttas found at the beginning of AN 1:


SN 45.77

nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, aññaṃ ekadhammampi samanupassāmi, yena anuppanno vā ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo uppajjati, uppanno vā ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchati, yathayidaṃ, bhikkhave, kalyāṇamittatā.

I do not see even one other thing, bhikkhus, because of which the unarisen noble eightfold path arises and the arisen noble eightfold path goes to the plenitude of its development so much, bhikkhus, as because of favorable friendship.


2. Sīla is also mentioned a few times independently from the sunrise simile, in the context of which it is introduced at SN 45.50 as accomplishment in virtue (sīla·sampadā). Such examples include the following:


SN 45.149

seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ye keci balakaraṇīyā kammantā karīyanti, sabbe te pathaviṃ nissāya pathaviyaṃ patiṭṭhāya evamete balakaraṇīyā kammantā karīyanti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sīlaṃ nissāya sīle patiṭṭhāya ariyaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ bhāveti ariyaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ bahulīkaroti.

Just as, bhikkhus, whatever actions are to be performed with strength are all performed on dependence on the earth, supported by the earth; in the same way, bhikkhus, it is on dependence on virtue, supported by virtue, that a bhikkhu develops the noble eightfold path, that he cultivates the noble eightfold path.


SN 45.150

seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ye kecime bījagāmabhūtagāmā vuḍḍhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullaṃ āpajjanti, sabbe te pathaviṃ nissāya pathaviyaṃ patiṭṭhāya evamete bījagāmabhūtagāmā vuḍḍhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullaṃ āpajjanti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sīlaṃ nissāya sīle patiṭṭhāya ariyaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ bhāvento ariyaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ bahulīkaronto vuḍḍhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullaṃ pāpuṇāti dhammesu.

Just as, bhikkhus, whatever kinds of seed and plant life come to development, growth, and plenitude, all come to development, growth, and plenitude on dependence on the earth, supported by the earth; in the same way, bhikkhus, on dependence on virtue, supported by virtue, a bhikkhu developing the noble eightfold path, cultivating the noble eightfold path, comes to development, growth, and plenitude in [wholesome] mental states.


3. Appamāda is also mentioned a few times independently from the sunrise simile, in the context of which it is introduced at SN 45.54 as accomplishment in assiduity (appamāda·sampadā). Such examples are found at SN 45.139 and SN 45.140.

4. Sammā·diṭṭhi (AN 10.121) or accomplishment in view (diṭṭhi·sampadā, SN 45.53), are mentioned with the sunrise simile as precursors of the path, without surprise since as we have seen above, each path factor leads to the next, and sammā·diṭṭhi stands first.

5. Accomplishment in desire (chanda·sampadā) is mentioned with the sunrise simile at SN 45.51. The Commentary explains it as desire for kusalā dhammā. In a related meaning, the word chanda appears notably in the sammā·vāyāma formula.

6. Accomplishment in self (atta·sampadā), mentioned with the sunrise simile at SN 45.52. The commentary explains the expression as sampanna·citta·tā (accomplishment in mind), which suggests the attainment of samādhi (see adhi·citta·sikkhā). The expression 'atta·ññū hoti' (one who knows himself) may explain the term. At SN 7.68, it is explained as knowing oneself to have saddhā, sīla, learning (suta), cāga, paññā and understanding (paṭibhāna).

7. Accomplishment in appropriate attention (yoniso·manasikāra-sampadā), mentioned with the sunrise simile at SN 45.52.

8, 9 & 10. Vijjā followed by hiri and ottappa (anva·d·eva hir·ottappa) is said to be the forerunner (pubb·aṅgama) in the entry upon kusalā dhammā (kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ samāpatti) at SN 45.1 and AN 10.105.

♦ The ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga is said at AN 4.34 to be the highest (agga) of saṅkhatā dhammā and to bring the highest vipākā.

♦ As we have seen above at SN 56.11, the ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga produces ñāṇa·dassana and leads to upasama, sambodhi and Nibbāna. Between SN 45.161 and SN 45.180, it is also said to lead to the direct knowledge (abhiññā), full understanding (pariññā), complete destruction (parikkhaya), and abandoning (pahāna) of various phenomena: the three discriminations (vidhā), i.e. 'I am superior' (‘seyyo·ham·asmī’ti), 'I am equal' (‘sadiso·ham·asmī’ti), 'I am inferior' (hīno·ham·asmī’ti); the three searches (esanā), i.e. the search for sensuality (kām·esanā), the search for [a good] existence (bhav·esanā), the search for the brahmic life (brahmacariy·esanā); the three āsavā; the three bhavā; the three sufferings (dukkhatā), i.e. the suffering from pain (dukkha·dukkhatā), the suffering from Constructions (saṅkhāra·dukkhatā), the suffering from change (vipariṇāma·dukkhatā); the three akusalamulā; the three types of vedanā; kāma, diṭṭhi and avijjā; the four upādānā; abhijjhā, byāpāda, sīla·bbata parāmāsa and adherence to [the view] 'This [alone] is the truth' (idaṃ·sacc·ābhinivesa); the seven anusayā; the five kāma·guṇā; the five nīvaraṇā; the five upādāna·kkhandhas; the ten saṃyojanā.

♦ The ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga also leads to the cessation (nirodha) of phenomena: MN 9 lists all the twelve links of paṭicca·samuppāda, the four āhārā and the three āsavā; AN 6.63 additionally speaks of the cessation of kāma and kamma; SN 22.56 mentions the cessation of each of the five upādāna·kkhandhas.

♦ The ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga is the tool to remove akusalā dhammā. In that respect, MN 3 directly mentions all the 16 upakkilesā (with dosa in place of byāpāda). A number of similes illustrating this point are given in the Magga Saṃyutta: at SN 45.153, akusalā dhammā are given up by the mind like a pot turned upside down 'gives up' its water; at SN 45.156, they are disintegrated like a cloud providing rain disintegrates a dust storm; at SN 45.157, they are dispersed like a strong wind disperses a great cloud giving rain; at SN 45.158, they are like the ropes on a ship that rot under inclement weather.

♦ The ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga gives strength to the mind, as explained in SN 45.27's simile, where it is compared to the stand of a pot that makes it difficult to get knocked over. At SN 45.160, people, powerful or not, wishing to convince a bhikkhu cultivating the ariya aṭṭh·aṅg·ika magga to abandon monkhood by offering him wealth will be no more successful than people wishing to change the direction of the Ganges, because his mind is inclined to seclusion.


SN 45.159

“seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, āgantukāgāraṃ. tattha puratthimāyapi disāya āgantvā vāsaṃ kappenti, pacchimāyapi disāya āgantvā vāsaṃ kappenti, uttarāyapi disāya āgantvā vāsaṃ kappenti, dakkhiṇāyapi disāya āgantvā vāsaṃ kappenti, khattiyāpi āgantvā vāsaṃ kappenti, brāhmaṇāpi āgantvā vāsaṃ kappenti, vessāpi āgantvā vāsaṃ kappenti, suddāpi āgantvā vāsaṃ kappenti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ariyaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ bhāvento ariyaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ bahulīkaronto ye dhammā abhiññā pariññeyyā, te dhamme abhiññā parijānāti, ye dhammā abhiññā pahātabbā, te dhamme abhiññā pajahati, ye dhammā abhiññā sacchikātabbā, te dhamme abhiññā sacchikaroti, ye dhammā abhiññā bhāvetabbā, te dhamme abhiññā bhāveti.

Suppose, monks, there is a guest-house. Travelers come from the east, the west, the north, the south to lodge here: nobles and Brahmans, merchants and serfs. In the same way, monks, a monk who cultivates the Noble Eightfold Path, who assiduously practices the Noble Eightfold Path, comprehends with higher knowledge those states that are to be so comprehended, abandons with higher knowledge those states that are to be so abandoned, comes to experience with higher knowledge those states that are to be so experienced, and cultivates with higher knowledge those states that are to be so cultivated.

“katame ca, bhikkhave, dhammā abhiññā pariññeyyā? pañcupādānakkhandhātissa vacanīyaṃ...

What, monks, are the states to be comprehended with higher knowledge? They are the five groups of clinging...

katame ca, bhikkhave, dhammā abhiññā pahātabbā? avijjā ca bhavataṇhā ca...

What, monks, are the states to be abandoned with higher knowledge? They are ignorance and the desire for [further] becoming...

katame ca, bhikkhave, dhammā abhiññā sacchikātabbā? vijjā ca vimutti ca...

And what, monks, are the states to be experienced with higher knowledge? They are knowledge and liberation...

katame ca, bhikkhave, dhammā abhiññā bhāvetabbā? samatho ca vipassanā ca.

And what, monk, are the states to be cultivated with higher knowledge? They are calm and insight.



Bodhi leaf





ariyasacca: [ariya+sacca] noble truth. The four ariya·saccas are expounded by the Buddha in his very first discourse, the Dhamma-cakka'p'pavattana Sutta. It consists of:

1. dukkha-ariya·sacca
2. dukkha·samudaya-ariya·sacca
3. dukkha·nirodha-ariya·sacca
4. dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā-ariya·sacca



Bodhi leaf





ariyasāvaka: [ariya+sāvaka] noble disciple.



Bodhi leaf





arūpabhava: [a+rūpa+bhava] existence/ becoming in the formless realm, which is taken as meaning those Brahmā-lokas which are accessible only to those who master at least the fifth jhāna. Arūpa-bhava is one of the three types of bhava.



Bodhi leaf





asantuṭṭhitā: [a+santuṭṭhitā]

discontent, dissatisfaction.
asantuṭṭha:

discontent, dissatisfied

♦ Sometimes, the adjective a·santuṭṭha is used with a rather neutral connotation, as at SN 35.198, where a bhikkhu is simply not satisfied with the answers given to his question.

♦ Most of the time, the word and its lexical derivatives carry a negative (akusala) connotation:

AN 1.64

“nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, aññaṃ ekadhammampi samanupassāmi yena anuppannā vā akusalā dhammā uppajjanti uppannā vā kusalā dhammā parihāyanti yathayidaṃ, bhikkhave, asantuṭṭhitā.

I do not see even one other thing, bhikkhus, because of which unarisen unwholesome mental states come to arise, or arisen wholesome mental states come to decline, so much, bhikkhus, as because of dissatisfaction.


AN 1.88

“nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, aññaṃ ekadhammampi samanupassāmi yo evaṃ mahato anatthāya saṃvattati yathayidaṃ, bhikkhave, asantuṭṭhitā.

I do not see even one other thing, bhikkhus, that leads to such great harm as discontent.


AN 1.120

“nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, aññaṃ ekadhammampi samanupassāmi yo evaṃ saddhammassa sammosāya antaradhānāya saṃvattati yathayidaṃ, bhikkhave, asantuṭṭhitā.

I do not see even one other thing, bhikkhus, that leads to the decline and confusion of the authentic Dhamma so much as discontent.


AN 10.82

“so vatānanda, bhikkhu ‘asantuṭṭho samāno imasmiṃ dhammavinaye vuddhiṃ virūḷhiṃ vepullaṃ āpajjissatī’ti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.

It is impossible, Ānanda, that a bhikkhu who is not content will find growth, progress, and completion in this Dhamma-Vinaya.


When the word carries such a connotation, being a·santuṭṭha is explained as follows:

AN 6.84

bhikkhu mahiccho hoti, vighātavā, asantuṭṭho, itarītara-cīvara-piṇḍapāta-senāsana-gilāna-ppaccaya-bhesajja-parikkhārena

a bhikkhu has great desires, is annoyed and is not content with whatever kind of robes, almsfood, lodging, and medicines & provisions for the sick [he gets]


As it is the case above, the word a·santuṭṭhitā or its lexical derivatives are very often juxtaposed with mahicchatā, which can almost be considered a synonym. In the Vinaya, lay people who are offended by bhikkhus' behavior often say:

mahicchā ime samaṇā sakyaputtiyā asantuṭṭhā.

These ascetics sons of the Sakyan are of great desires, not contented.

This happens typically when misbehaving bhikkhus put unnecessary pressure on lay supporters, either by asking more than the strict minimum they need, or by making burdensome requests without prior invitation. Thus, in the origin story to NP 6, the bhikkhu doesn't want to wait until his supporter goes back home to send him some cloth and demands instead one of the garments he is currently wearing. At NP 8, the bhikkhu gives instructions for getting finer cloth to the weaver appointed by his supporters to make his robe, which ends up costing twice as much yarn as they originally planned. At NP 10, the bhikkhu doesn't want to wait till the next day, which ends up costing a fine to his supporter. At Bhikkhunis' NP 11, some bhikkhunis ask the king for a woolen garment (which is considered luxurious).

AN 4.157 maps the concept with others: a·santuṭṭhitā leads to evil desire (pāpika iccha) for recognition (an·avañña) and lābha·sakkāra·siloka, then to wrong effort (vāyama) and finally deceiving families by pretending to be much worthier than one actually is:

AN 4.157

“cattārome, bhikkhave, pabbajitassa rogā. katame cattāro? idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu mahiccho hoti vighātavā asantuṭṭho itarītara-cīvara-piṇḍapāta-senāsana-gilāna-ppaccaya-bhesajja-parikkhārena. so mahiccho samāno vighātavā asantuṭṭho itarītara-cīvara-piṇḍapāta-senāsana-gilāna-ppaccaya-bhesajja-parikkhārena pāpikaṃ icchaṃ paṇidahati anavañña-ppaṭilābhāya lābha-sakkāra-siloka-ppaṭilābhāya. so uṭṭhahati ghaṭati vāyamati anavañña-ppaṭilābhāya lābha-sakkāra-siloka-ppaṭilābhāya. so saṅkhāya kulāni upasaṅkamati, saṅkhāya nisīdati, saṅkhāya dhammaṃ bhāsati, saṅkhāya uccārapassāvaṃ sandhāreti. ime kho, bhikkhave, cattāro pabbajitassa rogā.

Bhikkhus, there are these four sicknesses of one gone forth. What four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has great desires, is annoyed and is not content with whatever kind of robes, almsfood, lodging, and medicines & provisions for the sick [he gets]. Having great desires, being annoyed and not content with whatever kind of robes, almsfood, lodging, and medicines & provisions for the sick [he gets], he generates evil desire for recognition and for honors, gain & fame. He rouses, applies and exerts himself to obtain recognition and honors, gain & fame. He craftily approaches families, craftily sits down, craftily speaks about the Dhamma, and craftily holds in his excrement and urine. These, bhikkhus, are four sicknesses of one gone forth.


The sutta then goes on to explain the cure, which consists in forbearance with regards to the elements of nature, animals, other people's words and painful feelings:

“tasmātiha, bhikkhave, evaṃ sikkhitabbaṃ: ‘na mahicchā bhavissāma vighātavanto asantuṭṭhā itarītara-cīvara-piṇḍapāta-senāsana-gilāna-ppaccaya-bhesajja-parikkhārena, na pāpikaṃ icchaṃ paṇidahissāma anavañña-ppaṭilābhāya lābha-sakkāra-siloka-ppaṭilābhāya, na uṭṭhahissāma na ghaṭessāma na vāyamissāma anavañña-ppaṭilābhāya lābha-sakkāra-siloka-ppaṭilābhāya, khamā bhavissāma sītassa uṇhassa jighacchāya pipāsāya ḍaṃsa-makasa-vātā-tapa-sarīṃsapa-samphassānaṃ duruttānaṃ durāgatānaṃ vacanapathānaṃ, uppannānaṃ sārīrikānaṃ vedanānaṃ dukkhānaṃ tibbānaṃ kharānaṃ kaṭukānaṃ asātānaṃ amanāpānaṃ pāṇaharānaṃ adhivāsakajātikā bhavissāmā’ti. evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabban”ti.

Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train thus: 'We won't have great desires, be annoyed and not content with whatever kind of robes, almsfood, lodging, and medicines & provisions for the sick [we will get]; we won't generate evil desire for recognition and for honors, gain & fame; we won't rouse, apply and exert ourselves to obtain recognition and honors, gain & fame; we will endure cold, heat, hunger, thirst and the contact with flies, mosquitoes, wind, sun and creeping animals, as well as ways of speech that are ill-spoken and offensive; we will be patient with arisen bodily feelings that are painful, acute, sharp, piercing, disagreeable, unpleasant and threatening life.' This, bhikkhus, is how you should train yourselves.


In this sense, at AN 6.114, asantuṭṭhitā is juxtaposed with mahicchatā and a·sampajañña (lack of thorough comprehension).

It serves as a criterion to know whether one can dwell on his own or should stay amid other monks:

AN 5.127

“pañcahi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu nālaṃ saṅghamhā vapakāsituṃ . katamehi pañcahi? idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu asantuṭṭho hoti itarītarena cīvarena, asantuṭṭho hoti itarītarena piṇḍapātena, asantuṭṭho hoti itarītarena senāsanena, asantuṭṭho hoti itarītarena gilānappaccayabhesajjaparikkhārena, kāmasaṅkappabahulo ca viharati. imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahi dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu nālaṃ saṅghamhā vapakāsituṃ.

If he is endowed with five qualities, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu is not fit to live away from the Community. What five? He is not content with whatever kind of robe [he gets]; he is not content with whatever kind of almsfood [he gets]; he is not content with whatever kind of lodging [he gets]; he is not content with whatever kind of medicines and provisions for the sick [he gets]; and he dwells absorbed in thoughts of sensuality. If he is endowed with these five qualities, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu is not fit to live away from the Community.


Laypeople must also avoid this kind of asantuṭṭhitā:

Snp 1.6

“sehi dārehi asantuṭṭho, vesiyāsu padussati, dussati paradāresu, taṃ parābhavato mukhaṃ”.

Not satisfied with one's own wives, he is seen among the whores and the wives of others — this is the cause of his downfall.



♦ Although the word is mostly used with this negative connotation, it is also occasionally used with a positive (kusala) connotation. At AN 7.56 the devas who are content with their Brahmā state and do not know a higher escape (nissaraṇa) do not understand what those who are not content with that state and do know something higher may understand:

AN 7.56

ye kho te, mārisa moggallāna, brahmakāyikā devā brahmena āyunā santuṭṭhā... te uttari nissaraṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānanti, tesaṃ na evaṃ ñāṇaṃ hoti... ye ca kho te, mārisa moggallāna, brahmakāyikā devā brahmena āyunā asantuṭṭhā... te ca uttari nissaraṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānanti, tesaṃ evaṃ ñāṇaṃ hoti...

Sir Moggallāna, the devas of Brahmā’s retinue who are content with a brahmā’s longevity... and who do not know, as it actually is, an escape higher than this, do not have such a knowledge... But the devas of Brahmā’s retinue who are not content with a brahmā’s longevity... and who know, as it actually is, an escape higher than this, have such a knowledge...



At AN 2.5, asantuṭṭhitā applied to wholesome states (kusalā dhammā) is presented as very important for developping further on the path:

AN 2.5

dvinnāhaṃ, bhikkhave, dhammānaṃ upaññāsiṃ: yā ca asantuṭṭhitā kusalesu dhammesu, yā ca appaṭivānitā padhānasmiṃ.

Bhikkhus, I have come to know two qualities: non-contentment with wholesome states and tirelessness in exertion.



At SN 55.40, being satisfied with the four usual sot·āpattiy·aṅgas leads to not making an effort (vāyama) in solitude (paviveka), and then to successively miss on pāmojja, pīti and passaddhi, and finally dwell in dukkha, which is considered living with pamāda, while not being satisfied with them prompts one to make the effort in solitude and experience successively pāmojja, pīti, passaddhi, sukha, samādhi, the fact that phenomena have become manifest, and finally living with appamāda.

At AN 6.80, the word is interestingly surrounded by related concepts:

AN 6.80

chahi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu nacirasseva mahantattaṃ vepullattaṃ pāpuṇāti dhammesu. katamehi chahi? idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ālokabahulo ca hoti yogabahulo ca vedabahulo ca asantuṭṭhibahulo ca anikkhittadhuro ca kusalesu dhammesu uttari ca patāreti.

If he is endowed with six qualities, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu attains in no long time greatness and fullness in [wholesome] states. What six? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu is full of light, full of endeavor, full of enthusiasm, full of dissatisfaction [with wholesome states already attained], he doesn't shirk his task in wholesome states, and he keeps progressing further.



Bodhi leaf





asappurisa: [a+sappurisa]
bad person.

The word is always contrasted with sappurisa. Bāla is sometimes explicitly mentioned as a synonym:


MN 129

‘bālo ayaṃ bhavaṃ asappuriso’’ti.

‘This individual is a fool, a bad person’.



The term is defined multiple times. We find in the suttas three main ways to define it. According to the micchā·paṭipadā:


SN 45.26

katamo ca, bhikkhave, asappuriso? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco micchādiṭṭhiko hoti, micchāsaṅkappo, micchāvāco, micchākammanto, micchāājīvo, micchāvāyāmo, micchāsati, micchāsamādhi. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asappuriso”.

And what, bhikkhus, is a bad person? Here, bhikkhus, someone is of wrong view, wrong aspiration, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness and wrong concentration. This, bhikkhus, is what is called a bad person.

“katamo ca, bhikkhave, asappurisena asappurisataro? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco micchādiṭṭhiko hoti, micchāsaṅkappo, micchāvāco, micchākammanto, micchāājīvo, micchāvāyāmo, micchāsati, micchāsamādhi, micchāñāṇī, micchāvimutti. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asappurisena asappurisataro.

And what, bhikkhus, is one who is worse than a bad person? Here, bhikkhus, someone is of wrong view, wrong aspiration, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness, wrong concentration, wrong knowledge and wrong liberation. This, bhikkhus, is what is called one who is worse than a bad person.



According to various subsets of the ten akusalā kamma·pathā:


AN 4.204

“katamo ca, bhikkhave, asappuriso? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco pāṇātipātī hoti, adinnādāyī hoti, kāmesumicchācārī hoti, musāvādī hoti, pisuṇavāco hoti, pharusavāco hoti, samphappalāpī hoti, abhijjhālu hoti, byāpannacitto hoti, micchādiṭṭhiko hoti. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asappuriso.

And what, bhikkhus, is a bad person? Here, bhikkhus, someone destroys life, takes what is not given, engages in misconduct regarding [pleasures of] sensuality, speaks falsehood, speaks maliciously, speaks harshly, speaks frivolously, is covetous, has a malevolent mind, is of wrong view. This, bhikkhus, is what is called a bad person.

“katamo ca, bhikkhave, asappurisena asappurisataro? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco attanā ca pāṇātipātī hoti, parañca pāṇātipāte samādapeti, attanā ca adinnādāyī hoti, parañca adinnādāne samādapeti, attanā ca kāmesumicchācārī hoti, parañca kāmesumicchācāre samādapeti, attanā ca musāvādī hoti, parañca musāvāde samādapeti, attanā ca pisuṇavāco hoti, parañca pisuṇavācāya samādapeti, attanā ca pharusavāco hoti, parañca pharusavācāya samādapeti, attanā ca samphappalāpī hoti, parañca samphappalāpe samādapeti, attanā ca abhijjhālu hoti, parañca abhijjhāya samādapeti; attanā ca byāpannacitto hoti, parañca byāpāde samādapeti, attanā ca micchādiṭṭhiko hoti, parañca micchādiṭṭhiyā samādapeti. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asappurisena asappurisataro.

And what, bhikkhus, is one who is worse than a bad person? Here, bhikkhus, someone destroys life himself and incites others to destroy life, takes what is not given himself and incites others to take what is not given, engages in misconduct regarding [pleasures of] sensuality himself and incites others to engage in misconduct regarding [pleasures of] sensuality, speaks falsehood himself and incites others to speak falsehood, speaks maliciously himself and incites others to speak maliciously, speaks harshly himself and incites others to, speaks frivolously himself and incites others to, is covetous himself and incites others to speak harshly, has a malevolent mind himself and incites others to have a malevolent mind, is of wrong view himself and incites others to have wrong view. This, bhikkhus, is what is called one who is worse than a bad person.



According to a particular set of bad qualities:


AN 4.202

“katamo ca, bhikkhave, asappuriso? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco assaddho hoti, ahiriko hoti, anottappī hoti, appassuto hoti, kusīto hoti, muṭṭhassati hoti, duppañño hoti. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asappuriso.

And what, bhikkhus, is a bad person? Here, bhikkhus, someone doesn't have conviction, doesn't have conscientiousness, doesn't have scruple, doesn't acquire learning, is lazy, is of forgetful mindfulness, is of deficient discernment. This, bhikkhus, is what is called a bad person.

“katamo ca, bhikkhave, asappurisena asappurisataro? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco attanā ca assaddho hoti, parañca assaddhiye samādapeti; attanā ca ahiriko hoti, parañca ahirikatāya samādapeti; attanā ca anottappī hoti, parañca anottappe samādapeti; attanā ca appassuto hoti, parañca appassute samādapeti; attanā ca kusīto hoti, parañca kosajje samādapeti; attanā ca muṭṭhassati hoti, parañca muṭṭhassacce samādapeti; attanā ca duppañño hoti, parañca duppaññatāya samādapeti. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asappurisena asappurisataro.

And what, bhikkhus, is one who is worse than a bad person? Here, bhikkhus, someone doesn't have conviction himself and incites others to be without conviction, doesn't have conscientiousness himself and incites others to be without conscientiousness, doesn't have scruple himself and incites others to be without scruple, doesn't acquire learning himself and incites others to not acquire learning, is lazy himself and incites others to be lazy, is of forgetful mindfulness himself and incites others to be of forgetful mindfulness, is of deficient discernment himself and incites others to be of deficient discernment. This, bhikkhus, is what is called one who is worse than a bad person.



The term is also defined or explained at great length in two suttas of the Majjhima Nikāya:


MN 110

asappuriso, bhikkhave, assaddhammasamannāgato hoti, asappurisabhatti hoti, asappurisacintī hoti, asappurisamantī hoti, asappurisavāco hoti, asappurisakammanto hoti, asappurisadiṭṭhi hoti; asappurisadānaṃ deti”.

"A person of no integrity is endowed with qualities of no integrity; he is a person of no integrity in his friendship, in the way he wills, the way he gives advice, the way he speaks, the way he acts, the views he holds, & the way he gives a gift.

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso assaddhammasamannāgato hoti? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso assaddho hoti, ahiriko hoti, anottappī hoti, appassuto hoti, kusīto hoti, muṭṭhassati hoti, duppañño hoti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso assaddhammasamannāgato hoti.

"And how is a person of no integrity endowed with qualities of no integrity? There is the case where a person of no integrity is lacking in conviction, lacking in conscience, lacking in concern [for the results of unskillful actions]; he is unlearned, lazy, of muddled mindfulness, & poor discernment. This is how a person of no integrity is endowed with qualities of no integrity."

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisabhatti hoti? idha, bhikkhave, asappurisassa ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā assaddhā ahirikā anottappino appassutā kusītā muṭṭhassatino duppaññā tyāssa mittā honti te sahāyā. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisabhatti hoti.

"And how is a person of no integrity a person of no integrity in his friendship? There is the case where a person of no integrity has, as his friends & companions, those brahmans & contemplatives who are lacking in conviction, lacking in conscience, lacking in concern, unlearned, lazy, of muddled mindfulness, & poor discernment. This is how a person of no integrity is a person of no integrity in his friendship.

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisacintī hoti? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso attabyābādhāyapi ceteti, parabyābādhāyapi ceteti, ubhayabyābādhāyapi ceteti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisacintī hoti.

"And how is a person of no integrity a person of no integrity in the way he wills? There is the case where a person of no integrity wills for his own affliction, or for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both. This is how a person of no integrity is a person of no integrity in the way he wills.

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisamantī hoti? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso attabyābādhāyapi manteti, parabyābādhāyapi manteti, ubhayabyābādhāyapi manteti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisamantī hoti.

"And how is a person of no integrity a person of no integrity in the way he gives advice? There is the case where a person of no integrity gives advice for his own affliction, or for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both. This is how a person of no integrity is a person of no integrity in the way he gives advice.

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisavāco hoti? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso musāvādī hoti, pisuṇavāco hoti, pharusavāco hoti, samphappalāpī hoti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisavāco hoti.

"And how is a person of no integrity a person of no integrity in the way he speaks? There is the case where a person of no integrity is one who tells lies, engages in divisive tale-bearing, engages in harsh speech, engages in idle chatter. This is how a person of no integrity is a person of no integrity in the way he speaks.

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisakammanto hoti? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso pāṇātipātī hoti, adinnādāyī hoti, kāmesumicchācārī hoti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisakammanto hoti.

"And how is a person of no integrity a person of no integrity in the way he acts? There is the case where a person of no integrity is one who takes life, steals, engages in illicit sex. This is how a person of no integrity is a person of no integrity in the way he acts.

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisadiṭṭhi hoti? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso evaṃdiṭṭhi hoti: ‘natthi dinnaṃ, natthi yiṭṭhaṃ, natthi hutaṃ, natthi sukatadukkaṭānaṃ kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko, natthi ayaṃ loko, natthi paro loko, natthi mātā, natthi pitā, natthi sattā opapātikā, natthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā sammāpaṭipannā, ye imañca lokaṃ parañca lokaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī’ti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisadiṭṭhi hoti.

"And how is a person of no integrity a person of no integrity in the views he holds? There is the case where a person of no integrity is one who holds a view like this: 'There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed. There is no fruit or result of good or bad actions. There is no this world, no next world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously reborn beings; no brahmans or contemplatives who, faring rightly & practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after having directly known & realized it for themselves.' This is how a person of no integrity is a person of no integrity in the views he holds.

“kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisadānaṃ deti? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso asakkaccaṃ dānaṃ deti, asahatthā dānaṃ deti, acittīkatvā dānaṃ deti, apaviṭṭhaṃ dānaṃ deti anāgamanadiṭṭhiko dānaṃ deti. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisadānaṃ deti.

"And how is a person of no integrity a person of no integrity in the way he gives a gift? There is the case where a person of no integrity gives a gift inattentively, not with his own hand, disrespectfully, as if throwing it away, with the view that nothing will come of it. This is how a person of no integrity is a person of no integrity in the way he gives a gift.

“so, bhikkhave, asappuriso evaṃ assaddhammasamannāgato, evaṃ asappurisabhatti, evaṃ asappurisacintī, evaṃ asappurisamantī, evaṃ asappurisavāco, evaṃ asappurisakammanto, evaṃ asappurisadiṭṭhi; evaṃ asappurisadānaṃ datvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā yā asappurisānaṃ gati tattha upapajjati. kā ca, bhikkhave, asappurisānaṃ gati? nirayo vā tiracchānayoni vā.

"This person of no integrity, thus endowed with qualities of no integrity; a person of no integrity in his friendship, in the way he wills, the way he gives advice, the way he speaks, the way he acts, the views he holds, & the way he gives a gift, on the break-up of the body, after death, reappears in the destination of people of no integrity. And what is the destination of people of no integrity? Hell or the animal womb.


MN 113

“katamo ca, bhikkhave, asappurisadhammo? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso uccākulā pabbajito hoti. so iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘ahaṃ khomhi uccākulā pabbajito, ime panaññe bhikkhū na uccākulā pabbajitā’ti. so tāya uccākulīnatāya attānukkaṃseti, paraṃ vambheti. ayaṃ, bhikkhave, asappurisadhammo ...

"And which is the quality of a person of no integrity? "There is the case where a person of no integrity goes forth from a high-ranking family. He notices, 'I have gone forth from a high-ranking family, but these other monks have not gone forth from a high-ranking family.' He exalts himself for having a high-ranking family and disparages others. This is the quality of a person of no integrity ...

“puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso mahākulā pabbajito hoti ... mahābhogakulā pabbajito hoti ... uḷārabhogakulā pabbajito hoti. so iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘ahaṃ khomhi uḷārabhogakulā pabbajito, ime panaññe bhikkhū na uḷārabhogakulā pabbajitā’ti. so tāya uḷārabhogatāya attānukkaṃseti, paraṃ vambheti. ayampi, bhikkhave, asappurisadhammo ...

"Furthermore, a person of no integrity goes forth from a great family... a family of great wealth... a family of extensive wealth. He notices, 'I have gone forth from a family of extensive wealth, but these other monks have not gone forth from a family of extensive wealth.' He exalts himself for having a family of extensive wealth and disparages others. This is the quality of a person of no integrity ...

“puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso ñāto hoti yasassī... lābhī hoti cīvara-piṇḍapāta-senāsana-gilāna-ppaccaya-bhesajja-parikkhārānaṃ... bahussuto hoti... vinayadharo hoti... dhammakathiko hoti... āraññiko hoti... paṃsukūliko hoti... piṇḍapātiko hoti... rukkhamūliko hoti... sosāniko hoti... abbhokāsiko hoti... nesajjiko hoti... yathāsanthatiko hoti... ekāsaniko hoti... paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ... dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ... tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ... catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati... ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ... viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ... ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ... nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati. so iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘ahaṃ khomhi neva-saññā-nāsaññ-āyatana-samāpattiyā lābhī, ime panaññe bhikkhū neva-saññā-nāsaññ-āyatana-samāpattiyā na lābhino’ti. so tāya neva-saññā-nāsaññ-āyatana-samāpattiyā attānukkaṃseti, paraṃ vambheti. ayampi, bhikkhave, asappurisadhammo.

"Furthermore, a person of no integrity is well-known & highly regarded ... is one who gains robe-cloth, alms-food, lodgings, & medicinal requisites for the sick ... is learned ... is a master of the Vinaya ... is a Dhamma-speaker ... is a wilderness dweller ... is one who wears robes of thrown-away rags... an alms-goer... one who dwells at the root of a tree... a cemetery dweller... one who lives in the open air... one who doesn't lie down... one who is content with whatever dwelling is assigned to him... one who eats only one meal a day ... enters & remains in the first jhāna ... in the second jhāna... the third jhāna... the fourth jhāna... the dimension of the infinitude of space... the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness... the dimension of nothingness... the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. He notices, 'I have gained the attainment of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception, but these other monks have not gained the attainment of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception.' He exalts himself for the attainment of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception and disparages others. This is the quality of a person of no integrity.

The sutta doesn't mention the behavior of an asappurisa who would attain saññā·vedayita·nirodha, while it mentions that of a sappurisa who would, which suggests that a person who reaches such a state can no longer be an asappurisa.

♦ An asappurisa can be recognized by the way he relates to his own and his fellows' faults and virtues:


AN 4.73

“catūhi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samannāgato asappuriso veditabbo. katamehi catūhi? idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso yo hoti parassa avaṇṇo taṃ apuṭṭhopi pātu karoti, ko pana vādo puṭṭhassa! puṭṭho kho pana pañhābhinīto ahāpetvā alambitvā paripūraṃ vitthārena parassa avaṇṇaṃ bhāsitā hoti. veditabbametaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso ayaṃ bhavanti.

"Monks, a person endowed with these four qualities can be known as 'a person of no integrity.' Which four? There is the case where a person of no integrity, when unasked, reveals another person's bad points, to say nothing of when asked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of another person's bad points in full & in detail, without omission, without holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'

“puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso yo hoti parassa vaṇṇo taṃ puṭṭhopi na pātu karoti, ko pana vādo apuṭṭhassa! puṭṭho kho pana pañhābhinīto hāpetvā lambitvā aparipūraṃ avitthārena parassa vaṇṇaṃ bhāsitā hoti. veditabbametaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso ayaṃ bhavanti.

"Then again, a person of no integrity, when asked, does not reveal another person's good points, to say nothing of when unasked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of another person's good points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'

“puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso yo hoti attano avaṇṇo taṃ puṭṭhopi na pātu karoti, ko pana vādo apuṭṭhassa! puṭṭho kho pana pañhābhinīto hāpetvā lambitvā aparipūraṃ avitthārena attano avaṇṇaṃ bhāsitā hoti. veditabbametaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso ayaṃ bhavanti.

"Then again, a person of no integrity, when asked, does not reveal his own bad points, to say nothing of when unasked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own bad points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'

“puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso yo hoti attano vaṇṇo taṃ apuṭṭhopi pātu karoti, ko pana vādo puṭṭhassa! puṭṭho kho pana pañhābhinīto ahāpetvā alambitvā paripūraṃ vitthārena attano vaṇṇaṃ bhāsitā hoti. veditabbametaṃ, bhikkhave, asappuriso ayaṃ bhavanti. imehi kho, bhikkhave, catūhi dhammehi samannāgato asappuriso veditabbo.

"Then again, a person of no integrity, when unasked, reveals his own good points, to say nothing of when asked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own good points in full & in detail, without omissions, without holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'



♦ According to AN 2.33, an asappurisa is ungrateful (a·kat·aññū - 'one who doesn't know what has been done') and unthankful (a·kata·vedī - 'one who doesn't feel what has been done').

♦ At AN 2.135, someone who, without knowing well nor investigating (an·anuvicca a·pariy·ogāhetvā), speaks in praise of someone who deserves critic (a·vaṇṇ·ārahassa vaṇṇaṃ bhāsati), or criticizes someone who deserves praise (vaṇṇ·ārahassa a·vaṇṇaṃ bhāsati), is an asappurisa. In the immediately following sutta, the same holds for believing a matter that merits suspiscion (appasādanīye ṭhāne pasādaṃ upadaṃseti) or being suspicious about a matter that merits belief (pasādanīye ṭhāne appasādaṃ upadaṃseti).

♦ At AN 2.137, one who misbehaves (micchā·paṭipajjati) towards his mother or father is an asappurisa, and in the immediately following sutta, the same holds for the Tathāgata or one of his disciples (tathāgata·sāvaka).

♦ At AN 4.187, an asappurisa is not able to know for himself who really is an asappurisa or a sappurisa.

♦ At AN 5.147, there are five types of 'dānā of a bad person' (a·sappurisa·dānā): he gives casually (a·sa·kkaccaṃ deti), he gives without reverence (a·cittī·katvā deti), he does not give with his own hands (a·sa·hatthā deti), he gives what would be discarded (a·paviddhaṃ deti), he gives without a view about the returns of giving (an·āgamana·diṭṭhi·ko deti).

♦ At AN 10.61, listening to a teaching that contradicts the saddhamma is caused by association with asappurisā.



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āsava: impurities/ pollutions/ fermentations/ corruptions of the mind. The Buddha often refers to arahatta as the total destruction of āsavas (āsavakkhaya). Sāriputta lists āsavas as threefold at MN 9:

1. kām-āsava

2. bhav-āsava

3. avijj-āsava

The Sabbāsava Sutta explains in detail how the different types of āsavas are to be eradicated.



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āsavānaṃ khayañāṇa: [āsava khaya+ñāṇa] knowledge of the ending of āsavas, which arises with arahatta. It is one of the three vijjās. The formula defining it is analyzed there.



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asmimāna: [asmi+māna]

the conceit 'I am'.

The term asmi·māna can be considered as a variant form of māna, which constitutes one of the five saṃyojanas that disappear only with arahatta, and one of the seven anusayas. Thus, it is essentially something to get rid of.

♦ In this connection, anicca·saññā applied to the five upādāna·kkhandhas is often presented as the way to remove asmi·māna, e.g.:


SN 22.102

“kathaṃ bhāvitā ca, bhikkhave, aniccasaññā kathaṃ bahulīkatā... sabbaṃ asmimānaṃ samūhanati? ‘iti rūpaṃ, iti rūpassa samudayo, iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo; iti vedanā... iti saññā... iti saṅkhārā... iti viññāṇaṃ, iti viññāṇassa samudayo, iti viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo’ti. evaṃ bhāvitā kho, bhikkhave, aniccasaññā evaṃ bahulīkatā... sabbaṃ asmimānaṃ samūhanatī”ti.

And how, bhikkhus, is the perception of impermanence developed and practiced often so that it eradicates... all conceit 'I am'? 'Such is Form, such its apparition, such its extinction; such is Feeling... such is Perception... such are Fabrications... such is Consciousness, such its apparition, such its extinction': this is how the perception of impermanence is developed and practiced often so that it eradicates... all conceit 'I am'.


In an equivalent statement, the term asmi·māna is mentioned as applying to the five upādāna·kkhandhas, and the term anicca·saññā is replaced by 'udayabbay·ānupassī' (observing apparition and extinction).


MN 122

pañca kho ime, ānanda, upādānakkhandhā yattha bhikkhunā udayabbayānupassinā vihātabbaṃ. ‘iti rūpaṃ iti rūpassa samudayo iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo, iti vedanā... iti saññā... iti saṅkhārā... iti viññāṇaṃ iti viññāṇassa samudayo iti viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo’ti. tassa imesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu udayabbayānupassino viharato yo pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu asmimāno so pahīyati.

There are these five clinging-aggregates where a monk should stay, keeping track of arising & passing away (thus): 'Such is form, such its origination, such its disappearance. Such is feeling... Such is perception... Such are fabrications... Such is consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance.' As he stays keeping track of arising & passing away with regard to these five clinging-aggregates, he abandons any conceit that 'I am' with regard to these five clinging-aggregates.


As a matter of fact, it is revealed at AN 9.1 that anicca·saññā does not lead directly to asmi·māna·samugghāta (eradication of the conceit 'I am'). Rather, anicca·saññā leads first to anatta·saññā, which is the actual proximate cause for that eradication to take place:


AN 9.1

Aniccasaññā bhāvetabbā asmimānasamugghātāya. Aniccasaññino, bhikkhave, anattasaññā saṇṭhāti. anattasaññī asmimānasamugghātaṃ pāpuṇāti diṭṭheva dhamme nibbānan”ti

The perception of inconstancy should be developed, for the eradication of the conceit 'I am'. In one who perceives inconstancy, bhikkhus, the perception of non-self takes a stand. One who perceives non-self reaches the eradication of the conceit 'I am', Nibbāna in this visible world.


♦ An alternative tool for abandoning asmi·māna is kāyagatāsati:


AN 1.588

ekadhamme, bhikkhave, bhāvite bahulīkate asmimāno pahīyati. katamasmiṃ ekadhamme? kāyagatāya satiyā.

When, bhikkhus, one thing is developed and practiced often, the conceit 'I am' is abandoned. Which one thing? Mindfulness directed to the body.


AN 6.29, which features a unique list of anussatis, provides a more specific information: it is the nine sivathika contemplations that help eradicating asmi·māna:


AN 6.29

so imameva kāyaṃ evaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayampi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ti. idaṃ, bhante, anussatiṭṭhānaṃ evaṃ bhāvitaṃ evaṃ bahulīkataṃ asmimānasamugghātāya saṃvattati.

He compares this very body with it [the corpse]: 'This body is also of such a nature, it will become like this, it is not exempt from that.' This subject of recollection, when developed and practiced often in this way, leads to the eradication of the conceit 'I am.'


♦ We find in the suttas a few illustrative evocations of asmi·māna or its eradication. At SN 35.214, the practitioner is compared to a log drifting on a river that will go all the way to the ocean (which stands for nibbāna), provided it doesn't get stopped on the way. One of the possible obstacles is asmi·māna, which is compared to 'being cast up on high ground' (thale ussādo).

At AN 4.38, through eradication of asmi·māna, a bhikkhu is called 'patilīna', which may mean 'reserved', 'quiet', 'unostentatious', 'unpretentious', and which the commentary explains as 'hidden' or 'gone into solitude'.

At AN 5.71, one who has abandoned asmi·māna is said to be an ariya 'with banner lowered' (panna·ddhajo), 'with burden dropped' (panna·bhāra) and 'detached' or 'unfettered' (visaṃyutta).



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assāda: (apparent/sensory) satisfaction, enjoyment, gratification, sweetness, allure, happiness. Often cited together with ādīnava and nissaraṇa as characteristics to be understood regarding various dhammas: the five upādāna·kkhandhas, kāma, certain diṭṭhis etc. The assāda of a particular dhamma is generally described as the sukha and somanassa which arise on account of it. The assāda of kāma, rūpa and vedanā are explained in detail at MN 13.



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assutavā: [a+suta+vā] uninstructed/ ignorant person - lit: 'one who has not heard/learnt'.



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asubha: [a+subha]

1) (n:) non-beauty, foulness, loathsomeness, digust, ugliness.

2) (adj:) foul, loathsome, disgusting, ugly, impure, unpleasant.

Almost synonymous with paṭikūla. The contemplation of an asubha·nimitta is the way to develop asubha·saññā.

♦ The contemplation of an asubha object is exclusively aimed at removing rāga (e.g. MN 62, AN 6.107) or at removing kāma·cchanda, which is one of the five nīvaraṇas (with the help of an asubha·nimitta, at SN 46.51 and AN 1.16).

♦ In the Aṅguttara Nikāya, the expression 'bhikkhu asubhānupassī kāye viharati' (a bhikkhu dwells contemplating asubha in the body) appears as a synonym for the practice of asubha·saññā (at AN 10.60), often applied specifically to kāya, and generally in conjunction with āhāre paṭikūla·saññī, sabba·loke an·abhirata·saññī, sabba·saṅkhāresu anicc·ānupassī, and maraṇa·saññ[ī]. This set of five factors is said in various synonym ways to lead to nibbāna (e.g. AN 5.69). They can also lead a sick bhikkhu to arahatta (AN 5.121). Alternatively, in some cases they lead only to anāgāmita (AN 5.122).

♦ The expression 'asubhānupassī kāye viharati' is also described at AN 4.163 as participating of a painful mode of practice (dukkhā paṭipadā).

♦ Seeing as subha something which is actually asubha constitutes one of four saññā·vipallāsa (distortions of perception), citta·vipallāsa (perversions of the mind), diṭṭhi·vipallāsa (inversions of views), the other three being the corresponding misunderstanding of aniccā, dukkha and anatta (AN 4.49).

♦ At SN 54.9, the danger in this practice is made evident, as it leads many bhikkhus to commit suicide. It can be inferred that they did not apply yoniso manasi·kāra correctly and thus multiplied their aversion instead of removing rāga or kāma·cchanda. After the incident, the Buddha recommands ānāpānassati·samādhi as a way to gain calm, pleasantness, and allay akusala dhammas.

♦ For further information about asubha practices, see asubha·nimitta and asubha·saññā below.



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asubhanimitta: [asubha+nimitta]

sign of the unattractive, characteristic of foulness. The practice is to apply the mind to something repulsive, either per se (corpses at various stages of putrefaction for example), or to the repulsive aspects of something usually perceived otherwise, such as the body (of which 31 parts are identified, see here) or food. It is worthwhile to note that this practice can be dangerous, as if the mind is not properly endowed with yoniso manasi·kāra, one may instead multiply aversion as it happens at SN 54.9, where many bhikkhus commit suicide. Generally speaking, an asubha·nimitta can also be defined as an object that allows for the practice of asubha·saññā.

♦ At SN 46.51 and AN 1.16, an asubha·nimitta is said to remove kāma·cchanda, which is one of the five nīvaraṇas. At AN 3.69, it is also said to remove rāga.

♦ One practice involving asubha·nimittas is described in most detail in the section on charnel grounds (sivathika) of the Mahā·sati·paṭṭhāna Sutta, although not directly mentioned with this terminology.

♦ For further information about asubha practices, see asubha·saññā below.



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asubhasaññā: [asubha+saññā]

perception of the unattractive, perception of foulness, perception of non-beauty. This practice is explained at AN 10.60: it consists in reviewing 31 body parts.

♦ According to AN 7.49, when one often applies his/her mind to this practice, he/she is automatically repulsed by methuna·dhamma·samāpatti (getting into sexual intercourse).

♦ The seven bojjhaṅgas can be developed in conjunction with asubha·saññā (SN 46.72).

♦ According to AN 7.27, so long as the bhikkhus practice asubha·saññā, only growth can be expected of them, not decline.

♦ In the Aṅguttara Nikāya, asubha·saññā appears almost always with āhāre paṭikūla·saññā, sabba·loke an·abhirata·saññā and maraṇa·saññā. They are often collectively recommended for the sake of understanding or removing rāga (e.g. AN 5.303).

♦ Other perceptions usually associated with asubha·saññā include anicca·saññā, anicce dukkha·saññā, anatta·saññā, ādīnava·saññā, pahāna·saññā, virāga·saññā and nirodha·saññā.



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asura: beings resembling titans or fallen angels. Considered as in a way similar to the devas, but as being in a duggati, and thus living in misery. They are also often described as having a hostile nature and as frequently engaging in war against the devas lead by Sakka. Their leader is called Vepacitti.



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ātāpī:

(adj:) ardent, diligent, serious in effort, zealous.

The term appears most prominently in the Satipaṭṭhāna formulas:


DN 22

bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.

a bhikkhu dwells observing body in body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having given up covetousness and affliction towards the world.


It is explicitly defined at SN 16.2 in formulas reminiscent of those describing sammā·vāyāma:

“kathañcāvuso, ātāpī hoti? idhāvuso, bhikkhu ‘anuppannā me pāpakā akusalā dhammā uppajjamānā anatthāya saṃvatteyyun’ti ātappaṃ karoti, ‘uppannā me pāpakā akusalā dhammā appahīyamānā anatthāya saṃvatteyyun’ti ātappaṃ karoti, ‘anuppannā me kusalā dhammā anuppajjamānā anatthāya saṃvatteyyun’ti ātappaṃ karoti, ‘uppannā me kusalā dhammā nirujjhamānā anatthāya saṃvatteyyun’ti ātappaṃ karoti. evaṃ kho, āvuso, ātāpī hoti.

And how, friend, is one ardent? Here, friend, a bhikkhu exerts ardor [considering]: 'If unarisen bad, unskillful mental states arise in me, it would lead to [my] misfortune'; he exerts ardor [considering]: 'If arisen bad, unskillful mental states are not abandoned in me, it would lead to [my] misfortune'; he exerts ardor [considering]: 'If unarisen skillful mental states do not arise in me, it would lead to [my] misfortune'; he exerts ardor [considering]: 'If arisen skillful mental states cease in me, this may lead to [my] misfortune.' Thus, friend, he is ardent.


This definition is extended to include the ability to endure extreme dukkha·vedanā at AN 3.50:

“yato kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu anuppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ anuppādāya ātappaṃ karoti, anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya ātappaṃ karoti, uppannānaṃ sārīrikānaṃ vedanānaṃ dukkhānaṃ tibbānaṃ kharānaṃ kaṭukānaṃ asātānaṃ amanāpānaṃ pāṇaharānaṃ adhivāsanāya ātappaṃ karoti, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ātāpī nipako sato sammā dukkhassa antakiriyāyā”ti.

Bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu exerts ardor for the non-arising of unarisen bad, unskillful mental states, for the arising of unarisen skillful mental states, and for enduring arisen bodily feelings that are painful, racking, sharp, piercing, disagreeable, displeasing, threatening life, this is called, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is ardent, alert, and mindful for making a correct end of ill-being.


Another example of what being ātāpī means is given at AN 4.11:

“carato cepi... ṭhitassa cepi... nisinnassa cepi... sayānassa cepi, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno uppajjati kāmavitakko vā byāpādavitakko vā vihiṃsāvitakko vā, taṃ ce bhikkhu nādhivāseti, pajahati vinodeti byantīkaroti anabhāvaṃ gameti, sayānopi, bhikkhave, bhikkhu jāgaro evaṃbhūto ‘ātāpī ottāpī satataṃ samitaṃ āraddhavīriyo pahitatto’ti vuccati.

If while walking... while standing... while sitting... while lying down a thought of sensuality, a thought of ill will or a thought of harming arises in a bhikkhu and he does not give in to it but abandons it, dispels it, removes it, and brings it to complete cessation, then while wakefully lying down that bhikkhu is said to be ardent, to fear wrongdoing and to be continually and continuously of aroused energy and resolute will.


And at AN 4.12:

“carato cepi... ṭhitassa cepi... nisinnassa cepi... sayānassa cepi, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno jāgarassa abhijjhābyāpādo vigato hoti, thinamiddhaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti, uddhaccakukuccaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti, vicikicchā pahīnā hoti, āraddhaṃ hoti vīriyaṃ asallīnaṃ, upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā, passaddho kāyo asāraddho, samāhitaṃ cittaṃ ekaggaṃ, sayānopi, bhikkhave, bhikkhu jāgaro evaṃbhūto ‘ātāpī ottāpī satataṃ samitaṃ āraddhavīriyo pahitatto’ti vuccatī”ti.

If while walking... while standing... while sitting... while wakefully lying down covetousness and ill-will have ceased in a bhikkhu, dullness and drowsiness are abandoned, mental agitation and worry are abandoned, doubt is abandoned, his energy is aroused relentlessly, his mindfulness is established and unconfused, his body is tranquil and calm, his mind is concentrated and unified, then while wakefully lying down that bhikkhu is said to be ardent, to fear wrongdoing and to be continually and continuously of aroused energy and resolute will.


A list of terms that appear to be related to ātappaṃ karoti and may help gathering the meaning of ātāpī is given at SN 12.87: sikkhā karoti (practice the training), yoga karoti (exert dedication), chanda karoti (stir up the desire), ussoḷhī karoti (make an exertion), appaṭivānī karoti (exert persistence), vīriyaṃ karoti (exert energy), sātaccaṃ karoti (exert perseverance), sati karoti (exert mindfulness), sampajaññaṃ karoti (exert clear comprehension), appamādo karoti (exert heedfulness).


SN 12.87

upādānaṃ, bhikkhave, ajānatā apassatā yathābhūtaṃ upādāne yathābhūtaṃ ñāṇāya sikkhā karaṇīyā... yogo karaṇīyo... chando karaṇīyo... ussoḷhī karaṇīyā... appaṭivānī karaṇīyā... ātappaṃ karaṇīyaṃ... vīriyaṃ karaṇīyaṃ... sātaccaṃ karaṇīyaṃ... sati karaṇīyā... sampajaññaṃ karaṇīyaṃ.. appamādo karaṇīyo.

Bhikkhus, one who does not know, who does not see attachment as it really is should practice the training... exert dedication... stir up the desire... make an exertion... exert persistence... exert ardor... exert energy... exert perseverance... exert mindfulness... exert clear comprehension... exert heedfulness in order to know it as it really is.


Another list is found at DN 3 and adds padhāna, anuyoga and sammā·manasikāra (probably a synonym for yoniso manasikāra):


DN 3

ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṃ cetosamādhiṃ phusati

Some renuniciate or brahmin, by means of ardor, by means of effort, by means of dedication, by means of heedfulness, by means of proper consideration, attains such a concentration of the mind


Some suttas help understanding what being ātāpī means, as they explain what may happen when the practitioner is in that state:


SN 36.7

“tassa ce, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno evaṃ satassa sampajānassa appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato uppajjati sukhā vedanā... dukkhā vedanā. so evaṃ pajānāti: ‘uppannā kho myāyaṃ dukkhā vedanā. sā ca kho paṭicca, no appaṭicca. kiṃ paṭicca? imameva kāyaṃ paṭicca. ayaṃ kho pana kāyo anicco saṅkhato paṭiccasamuppanno. aniccaṃ kho pana saṅkhataṃ paṭiccasamuppannaṃ kāyaṃ paṭicca uppannā dukkhā vedanā kuto niccā bhavissatī’ti! so kāye ca dukkhāya vedanāya aniccānupassī viharati, vayānupassī viharati, virāgānupassī viharati, nirodhānupassī viharati, paṭinissaggānupassī viharati. tassa kāye ca dukkhāya ca vedanāya aniccānupassino viharato, vayānupassino viharato, virāgānupassino viharato, nirodhānupassino viharato, paṭinissaggānupassino viharato, yo kāye ca dukkhāya ca vedanāya paṭighānusayo, so pahīyati.

As a monk is dwelling thus mindful & alert — heedful, ardent, & resolute — a feeling of pleasure... a feeling of pain arises in him. He discerns that 'A feeling of pain has arisen in me. It is dependent on a requisite condition, not independent. Dependent on what? Dependent on this body. Now, this body is inconstant, fabricated, dependently co-arisen. Being dependent on a body that is inconstant, fabricated, & dependently co-arisen, how can this feeling of pain that has arisen be constant?' He remains focused on inconstancy with regard to the body & to the feeling of pain. He remains focused on dissolution... dispassion... cessation... relinquishment with regard to the body & to the feeling of pain. As he remains focused on inconstancy... dissolution... dispassion... cessation... relinquishment with regard to the body & to the feeling of pain, he abandons any resistance-obsession with regard to the body & the feeling of pain.

“tassa ce, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno evaṃ satassa sampajānassa appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato uppajjati adukkhamasukhā vedanā... yo kāye ca adukkhamasukhāya ca vedanāya avijjānusayo, so pahīyati.

As he is dwelling thus mindful & alert — heedful, ardent, & resolute — a feeling of neither-pleasure-nor-pain arises in him... he abandons any ignorance-obsession with regard to the body & the feeling of neither-pleasure-nor-pain.


For a more refined understanding of the expression and what it may have meant at the time, it is interesting to study related words. We may start by noting that the closest word in Sanskrit is ātapya (आतप्य), meaning 'being in the sunshine'.

1) The first shade of meaning is best illustrated by the verb tapati, meaning 'to shine', as at SN 1.26: 'divā tapati ādicco' (the sun shines by day) or at SN 21.11: 'sannaddho khattiyo tapati' (the khattiya shines clad in armor).

2) The second shade of meaning can be derived from the first by noting that staying where the sun shines in a tropical climate generally turns out to be a hot and unpleasant experience, which may be how tapati comes to refer to the dukkha·vipāka that arises as a result of akusala kamma. Thus, at AN 10.141, the tenfold micchā·paṭipadā is called 'the teaching that causes torment' (tapanīyo dhammo). AN 2.3 provides more detail about the workings of these torments:

“dveme, bhikkhave, dhammā tapanīyā. katame dve? idha, bhikkhave, ekaccassa kāyaduccaritaṃ kataṃ hoti, akataṃ hoti kāyasucaritaṃ; vacīduccaritaṃ kataṃ hoti; akataṃ hoti vacīsucaritaṃ; manoduccaritaṃ kataṃ hoti, akataṃ hoti manosucaritaṃ. so ‘kāyaduccaritaṃ me katan’ti tappati, ‘akataṃ me kāyasucaritan’ti tappati; ‘vacīduccaritaṃ me katan’ti tappati, ‘akataṃ me vacīsucaritan’ti tappati; ‘manoduccaritaṃ me katan’ti tappati, ‘akataṃ me manosucaritan’ti tappati. ime kho, bhikkhave, dve dhammā tapanīyā”ti.

Bhikkhus, these two things cause torment. Which two? Here, bhikkhus, someone has performed bodily misconduct and has not performed bodily good conduct; he has performed verbal misconduct and has not performed verbal good conduct; he has performed mental misconduct and has not performed mental good conduct. He is tormented, [thinking]: 'I have performed bodily misconduct'; he is tormented, [thinking]: 'I have not performed bodily good conduct'; he is tormented, [thinking]: 'I have performed verbal misconduct'; he is tormented, [thinking]: 'I have not performed verbal good conduct'; he is tormented, [thinking]: 'I have performed mental misconduct'; he is tormented, [thinking]: 'I have not performed mental good conduct.' These, bhikkhus, are two things that cause torment.


We also find various instances of words related to tapati, used to refer to dukkha·vipāka and the remorse the wrong-doer experiences:


SN 2.8

akataṃ dukkaṭaṃ seyyo, pacchā tapati dukkaṭaṃ.

Better left undone is a wrong deed, for a wrong deed later brings torment.



SN 2.22

na taṃ kammaṃ kataṃ sādhu, yaṃ katvā anutappati.

An action which, once performed, brings torment is not well done.



Dhp 17

idha tappati pecca tappati,
pāpakārī ubhayattha tappati.
'pāpaṃ me katan'ti tappati,
bhiyyo tappati duggatiṃ gato.

The evil-doer is tormented here and is tormented hereafter,
He is tormented in both [worlds].
He is tormented, [thinking]: 'I have done evil [things]',
And he is tormented even more when gone to a bad destination [after death].



3) The third shade of meaning is also derived from the first, as staying in the sunshine can also be a symbol for making an effort, for example to earn one's living:


AN 5.33

“yo naṃ bharati sabbadā,
niccaṃ ātāpi ussuko.
sabbakāmaharaṃ posaṃ,
bhattāraṃ nātimaññati.

The one who always supports her
Constantly ardent and zealous
The man who brings what she desires,
Her husband she does not despise.


In another example, someone overcome by the three akusala·mūlas does not make an effort to correct the falsehood that is said to him:


AN 5.33

abhūtena vuccamāno na ātappaṃ karoti tassa nibbeṭhanāya itipetaṃ atacchaṃ itipetaṃ abhūtanti.

When he is told things that are not factual, he doesn't make an effort to correct it: 'It is not true because of this, it is not factual because of this'.



4) The fourth connotation, stronger, is that of asceticism or austerities.


MN 12

iti evarūpaṃ anekavihitaṃ kāyassa ātāpana-paritāpan-ānuyogamanuyutto viharāmi. idaṃsu me, sāriputta, tapassitāya hoti.

Thus in such a variety of ways I dwelt pursuing the practice of tormenting and mortifying the body. Such was my asceticism.


Those austerities are depicted at MN 51:


“katamo ca, bhikkhave, puggalo attantapo attaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco puggalo acelako hoti muttācāro hatthāpalekhano naehibhaddantiko natiṭṭhabhaddantiko; nābhihaṭaṃ na uddissakataṃ na nimantanaṃ sādiyati; so na kumbhimukhā paṭiggaṇhāti na kaḷopimukhā paṭiggaṇhāti na eḷakamantaraṃ na daṇḍamantaraṃ na musalamantaraṃ na dvinnaṃ bhuñjamānānaṃ na gabbhiniyā na pāyamānāya na purisantaragatāya na saṅkittīsu na yattha sā upaṭṭhito hoti na yattha makkhikā saṇḍasaṇḍacārinī; na macchaṃ na maṃsaṃ na suraṃ na merayaṃ na thusodakaṃ pivati. so ekāgāriko vā hoti ekālopiko, dvāgāriko vā hoti dvālopiko... sattāgāriko vā hoti sattālopiko; ekissāpi dattiyā yāpeti, dvīhipi dattīhi yāpeti... sattahipi dattīhi yāpeti; ekāhikampi āhāraṃ āhāreti, dvīhikampi āhāraṃ āhāreti... sattāhikampi āhāraṃ āhāreti iti evarūpaṃ aḍḍhamāsikaṃ pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. so sākabhakkho vā hoti, sāmākabhakkho vā hoti, nīvārabhakkho vā hoti, daddulabhakkho vā hoti, haṭabhakkho vā hoti, kaṇabhakkho vā hoti, ācāmabhakkho vā hoti, piññākabhakkho vā hoti, tiṇabhakkho vā hoti, gomayabhakkho vā hoti; vanamūlaphalāhāro yāpeti pavattaphalabhojī. so sāṇānipi dhāreti, masāṇānipi dhāreti, chavadussānipi dhāreti, paṃsukūlānipi dhāreti, tirīṭānipi dhāreti, ajinampi dhāreti, ajinakkhipampi dhāreti, kusacīrampi dhāreti, vākacīrampi dhāreti, phalakacīrampi dhāreti, kesakambalampi dhāreti, vāḷakambalampi dhāreti, ulūkapakkhampi dhāreti; kesamassulocakopi hoti, kesamassulocanānuyogamanuyutto, ubbhaṭṭhakopi hoti āsanapaṭikkhitto, ukkuṭikopi hoti ukkuṭikappadhānamanuyutto, kaṇṭakāpassayikopi hoti kaṇṭakāpassaye seyyaṃ kappeti; sāyatatiyakampi udakorohanānuyogamanuyutto viharati iti evarūpaṃ anekavihitaṃ kāyassa ātāpanaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, puggalo attantapo attaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto.

And what, bhikkhus, is the person who torments himself and pursues the practice of mortifying himself? Here, bhikkhus, a certain person goes naked, rejecting conventions, licking his hands, not coming when asked, not stopping when asked; he does not accept food brought or food specially made or an invitation to a meal; he receives nothing from a pot, from a bowl, across a threshold, across a stick, across a pestle, from two eating together, from a pregnant woman, from a woman giving suck, from a woman lying with a man, from where food was advertised to be distributed, from where a dog was waiting, from where flies were buzzing; he accepts no fish or meat, he drinks no liquor, wine or fermented brew. He keeps to one house, to one morsel; he keeps to two houses, to two morsels;... he keeps to seven houses, to seven morsels. he lives on one saucerful a day, on two saucerfuls a day... on seven saucerfuls a day; he takes food once a day, once every two days... once every seven days, and so on up to once every fortnight; he dwels pursuing the practice of taking food at stated intervals. He is an eater of greens or millet or wild rice or hide-parings or moss or ricebran or rice-scum or sesamum flour or grass or cowdung. He lives on forest roots and fruits, he feeds on fallen fruits. He clothes himself in hemp, in hemp-mixed cloth, in shrouds, in refuse rags, in tree bark, in antelope hide, in strips of antelope hide, in kusa-grass fabric, in bark fabric, in wood-shavings fabric, in head-hair wool, in animal wool, in owls' wings. He is one who pulls out hair and beard, pursuing the practice of pulling out hair and beard. He is one who stands continuously, rejecting seats. He is one who squats continuously, devoted to maintaining the squatting position. He is one who uses a mattress of spikes; he makes a mattress of spikes his bed. He dwells pursuing the practice of bathing in water three times daily including the evening. Thus in such a variety of ways he dwells pursuing the practice of tormenting and mortifying the body. This, bhikkhus, is what is called the person who torments himself and pursues the practice of mortifying himself.


Given on one hand this close proximity of the term ātāpī with the vocabulary of austerity and mortification and on the other the fact that the Buddha recommends being ātāpī (most prominently in the satipaṭṭhāna formulas), and knowing he also rejected self-mortification, in order to understand more precisely what he meant exactly by being ātāpī, it would appear useful to examine in greater details what his wider position was in regards to austerity.

First of all, it should be borne in mind that the Buddha clearly rejects the pursuit of self-mortification in his first recorded discourse, the Dhamma·cakka·ppavattana Sutta:


SN 56.11

“dveme, bhikkhave, antā pabbajitena na sevitabbā. katame dve? yo cāyaṃ kāmesu kāmasukhallikānuyogo hīno gammo pothujjaniko anariyo anatthasaṃhito, yo cāyaṃ attakilamathānuyogo dukkho anariyo anatthasaṃhito.

These two extremes, bhikkhus, should not be adopted by one who has gone forth from the home life. Which two? On one hand, the pursuit of hedonism towards sensuality, which is inferior, vulgar, common, ignoble, deprived of benefit, and on the other hand the pursuit of self-mortification, which is painful, ignoble and deprived of benefit.


But at AN 10.94, the Buddha says he does not reject categorically both "all austerity" and "all ascetics leading the rough life", as it all depends on whether their practice removes unwholesome states and brings about wholesome ones, or not:


— “saccaṃ kira, gahapati, samaṇo gotamo sabbaṃ tapaṃ garahati, sabbaṃ tapassiṃ lūkhājīviṃ ekaṃsena upakkosati upavadatī”ti?

— "Is it true, householder, that Gotama the contemplative criticizes all asceticism, that he categorically denounces & disparages all ascetics who live the rough life?"

— “na kho, bhante, bhagavā sabbaṃ tapaṃ garahati napi sabbaṃ tapassiṃ lūkhājīviṃ ekaṃsena upakkosati upavadati.

— "No, venerable sirs, the Blessed One does not criticize all asceticism, nor does he categorically denounce or disparage all ascetics who live the rough life.

...

... [The Blessed One:]

nāhaṃ, gahapati, sabbaṃ tapaṃ tapitabbanti vadāmi; na ca panāhaṃ, gahapati, sabbaṃ tapaṃ na tapitabbanti vadāmi; nāhaṃ, gahapati, sabbaṃ samādānaṃ samāditabbanti vadāmi; na panāhaṃ, gahapati, sabbaṃ samādānaṃ na samāditabbanti vadāmi; nāhaṃ, gahapati, sabbaṃ padhānaṃ padahitabbanti vadāmi; na panāhaṃ, gahapati, sabbaṃ padhānaṃ na padahitabbanti vadāmi; nāhaṃ, gahapati, sabbo paṭinissaggo paṭinissajjitabboti vadāmi. na panāhaṃ, gahapati, sabbo paṭinissaggo na paṭinissajjitabboti vadāmi; nāhaṃ, gahapati, sabbā vimutti vimuccitabbāti vadāmi; na panāhaṃ, gahapati, sabbā vimutti na vimuccitabbāti vadāmi.

I don't say that all asceticism is to be pursued, nor do I say that all asceticism is not to be pursued. I don't say that all observances should be observed, nor do I say that all observances should not be observed. I don't say that all exertions are to be pursued, nor do I say that all exertions are not to be pursued. I don't say that all forfeiture should be forfeited, nor do I say that all forfeiture should not be forfeited. I don't say that all release is to be used for release, nor do I say that all release is not to be used for release.

“yañhi, gahapati, tapaṃ tapato akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti, kusalā dhammā parihāyanti, evarūpaṃ tapaṃ na tapitabbanti vadāmi. yañca khvassa gahapati, tapaṃ tapato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti, kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti, evarūpaṃ tapaṃ tapitabbanti vadāmi.

"If, when an ascetic practice is pursued, unskillful qualities grow and skillful qualities wane, then I tell you that that sort of asceticism is not to be pursued. But if, when an ascetic practice is pursued, unskillful qualities wane and skillful qualities grow, then I tell you that that sort of asceticism is to be pursued.

“yañhi, gahapati, samādānaṃ samādiyato... padhānaṃ padahato... paṭinissaggaṃ paṭinissajjato... vimuttiṃ vimuccato akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti, kusalā dhammā parihāyanti, evarūpā vimutti na vimuccitabbāti vadāmi. yañca khvassa, gahapati, vimuttiṃ vimuccato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti, kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti, evarūpā vimutti vimuccitabbāti vadāmī”ti.

"If, when an observance is observed... when an exertion is pursued... a forfeiture is forfeited... a release is used for release, unskillful qualities grow and skillful qualities wane, then I tell you that that sort of release is not to be used for release. But if, when a release is used for release, unskillful qualities wane and skillful qualities grow, then I tell you that that sort of release is to be used for release."


But again, by contrast, at SN 42.12, while still not rejecting categorically both "all austerity" and "all ascetics leading the rough life", the Buddha does seem to reject categorically the fact of 'attānaṃ ātāpeti paritāpeti' (tormenting and torturing oneself), by presenting it as a reason good enough by itself to draw disapproval:


SN 42.12

ekamantaṃ nisinno kho rāsiyo gāmaṇi bhagavantaṃ etadavoca:

Having sat down to one side, Rasiya the headman said to the Blessed One:

— “sutaṃ metaṃ, bhante, ‘samaṇo gotamo sabbaṃ tapaṃ garahati, sabbaṃ tapassiṃ lūkhajīviṃ ekaṃsena upavadati upakkosatī’ti . ye te, bhante, evamāhaṃsu... kacci te, bhante, bhagavato vuttavādino, na ca bhagavantaṃ abhūtena abbhācikkhanti, dhammassa cānudhammaṃ byākaronti, na ca koci sahadhammiko vādānuvādo gārayhaṃ ṭhānaṃ āgacchatī”ti?

— Bhante, I have heard: 'The renunciate Gotama disapproves of all austerity, he categorically criticizes and blames all ascetics leading a rough life.' Those who say this, Bhante... do they speak in line with what the Blessed One has said, do they not misrepresent the Blessed One with what is contrary to fact, do they answer in line with the Dhamma, so that no one whose thinking is in line with the Dhamma would have grounds for criticizing them?

— “ye te, gāmaṇi, evamāhaṃsu... na me te vuttavādino, abbhācikkhanti ca pana maṃ te asatā tucchā abhūtena”.

— Those who say this, headman, do not speak in line with what I have said, and they misrepresent me with what is false and contrary to fact.

...

...

“tatra, gāmaṇi, yvāyaṃ tapassī lūkhajīvī attānaṃ ātāpeti paritāpeti, kusalañca dhammaṃ adhigacchati, uttari ca manussadhammā alamariyañāṇadassanavisesaṃ sacchikaroti. ayaṃ, gāmaṇi, tapassī lūkhajīvī ekena ṭhānena gārayho, dvīhi ṭhānehi pāsaṃso. katamena ekena ṭhānena gārayho? attānaṃ ātāpeti paritāpetīti, iminā ekena ṭhānena gārayho. katamehi dvīhi ṭhānehi pāsaṃso? kusalañca dhammaṃ adhigacchatīti, iminā paṭhamena ṭhānena pāsaṃso. uttari ca manussadhammā alamariyañāṇadassanavisesaṃ sacchikarotīti, iminā dutiyena ṭhānena pāsaṃso.

Here, headman, regarding the ascetic leading a rough life who torments and tortures himself, yet achieves a wholesome state and realizes a supra-human state, an attainment in knowledge and vision that is suitable to the noble ones, this ascetic leading a rough life, headman, may be disapproved of on one ground and praised on two grounds. And what is the one ground on which he may be disapproved of? He torments and tortures himself: this is the one ground on which he may be disapproved of. And what are the two grounds on which he may be praised? He achieves a wholesome state: this is the first ground on which he may be praised. He realizes a supra-human state, an attainment in knowledge and vision that is suitable to the noble ones: this is the second ground on which he may be praised.


Yet the exact same combination of verbs, 'ātāpeti paritāpeti' (meaning here to heat and burn), is also used (although with a different connotation) at MN 101 in a simile illustrating a recommended kind of unpleasant practice:


MN 101

“kathañca, bhikkhave, saphalo upakkamo hoti, saphalaṃ padhānaṃ? idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu na heva anaddhabhūtaṃ attānaṃ dukkhena addhabhāveti, dhammikañca sukhaṃ na pariccajati, tasmiñca sukhe anadhimucchito hoti. so evaṃ pajānāti: ‘imassa kho me dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṃ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti, imassa pana me dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṃ bhāvayato virāgo hotī’ti. so yassa hi khvāssa dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṃ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti, saṅkhāraṃ tattha padahati. yassa panassa dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṃ bhāvayato virāgo hoti, upekkhaṃ tattha bhāveti. tassa tassa dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṃ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti. evampissa taṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ hoti. tassa tassa dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṃ bhāvayato virāgo hoti. evampissa taṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ hoti.

"And how is striving fruitful, how is exertion fruitful? There is the case where a monk, when not loaded down, does not load himself down with pain, nor does he reject pleasure that accords with the Dhamma, although he is not fixated on that pleasure. He discerns that 'When I exert a [physical, verbal, or mental] fabrication against this cause of stress, then from the fabrication of exertion there is dispassion. When I look on with equanimity at that cause of stress, then from the development of equanimity there is dispassion.' So he exerts a fabrication against the cause of stress where there comes dispassion from the fabrication of exertion, and develops equanimity with regard to the cause of stress where there comes dispassion from the development of equanimity. Thus the stress coming from the cause of stress for which there is dispassion through the fabrication of exertion is exhausted & the stress resulting from the cause of stress for which there is dispassion through the development of equanimity is exhausted.

“seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso itthiyā sāratto paṭibaddhacitto tibbacchando tibbāpekkho. so taṃ itthiṃ passeyya aññena purisena saddhiṃ santiṭṭhantiṃ sallapantiṃ sañjagghantiṃ saṃhasantiṃ. taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, api nu tassa purisassa amuṃ itthiṃ disvā aññena purisena saddhiṃ santiṭṭhantiṃ sallapantiṃ sañjagghantiṃ saṃhasantiṃ uppajjeyyuṃ soka-parideva-dukkha-domanass-ūpāyāsā”ti?

"Suppose that a man is in love with a woman, his mind ensnared with fierce desire, fierce passion. He sees her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing. What do you think, monks: As he sees her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing, would sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair arise in him?"

— “evaṃ, bhante”.

— "Yes, lord.

— “taṃ kissa hetu”?

— Why is that?

— “amu hi, bhante, puriso amussā itthiyā sāratto paṭibaddhacitto tibbacchando tibbāpekkho... soka-parideva-dukkha-domanass-ūpāyāsā”ti.

— Because he is in love with her, his mind ensnared with fierce desire, fierce passion... sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair would arise in him.

— “atha kho, bhikkhave, tassa purisassa evamassa: ‘ahaṃ kho amussā itthiyā sāratto paṭibaddhacitto tibbacchando tibbāpekkho. tassa me amuṃ itthiṃ disvā aññena purisena saddhiṃ santiṭṭhantiṃ sallapantiṃ sañjagghantiṃ saṃhasantiṃ uppajjanti sokaparidevadukkhadomanassūpāyāsā. yaṃnūnāhaṃ yo me amussā itthiyā chandarāgo taṃ pajaheyyan’ti. so yo amussā itthiyā chandarāgo taṃ pajaheyya. so taṃ itthiṃ passeyya aparena samayena aññena purisena saddhiṃ santiṭṭhantiṃ sallapantiṃ sañjagghantiṃ saṃhasantiṃ. taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, api nu tassa purisassa amuṃ itthiṃ disvā aññena purisena saddhiṃ santiṭṭhantiṃ sallapantiṃ sañjagghantiṃ saṃhasantiṃ uppajjeyyuṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassūpāyāsā”ti?

— "Now suppose the thought were to occur to him, 'I am in love with this woman, my mind ensnared with fierce desire, fierce passion. When I see her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing, then sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair arise within me. Why don't I abandon my desire & passion for that woman?' So he abandons his desire & passion for that woman, and afterwards sees her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing. What do you think, monks: As he sees her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing, would sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair arise in him?"

— “no hetaṃ, bhante”.

— "No, lord.

— “taṃ kissa hetu”?

— Why is that?

— “amu hi, bhante, puriso amussā itthiyā virāgo. tasmā taṃ itthiṃ disvā aññena purisena saddhiṃ santiṭṭhantiṃ sallapantiṃ sañjagghantiṃ saṃhasantiṃ na uppajjeyyuṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassūpāyāsā”ti.

— He is dispassionate toward that woman. As he sees her standing with another man, chatting, joking, & laughing, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair would not arise in him.

— “evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu na heva anaddhabhūtaṃ attānaṃ dukkhena addhabhāveti, dhammikañca sukhaṃ na pariccajati, tasmiñca sukhe anadhimucchito hoti. so evaṃ pajānāti: ‘imassa kho me dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṃ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti, imassa pana me dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṃ bhāvayato virāgo hotī’ti. so yassa hi khvāssa dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṃ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti, saṅkhāraṃ tattha padahati; yassa panassa dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṃ bhāvayato virāgo hoti, upekkhaṃ tattha bhāveti. tassa tassa dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṃ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti: evampissa taṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ hoti. tassa tassa dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṃ bhāvayato virāgo hoti: evampissa taṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ hoti. evampi, bhikkhave, saphalo upakkamo hoti, saphalaṃ padhānaṃ.

— "In the same way, the monk, when not loaded down, does not load himself down with pain, nor does he reject pleasure that accords with the Dhamma, although he is not infatuated with that pleasure. He discerns that 'When I exert a [physical, verbal, or mental] fabrication against this cause of stress, then from the fabrication of exertion there is dispassion. When I look on with equanimity at that cause of stress, then from the development of equanimity there is dispassion.' So he exerts a fabrication against the cause of stress where there comes dispassion from the fabrication of exertion, and develops equanimity with regard to the cause of stress where there comes dispassion from the development of equanimity. Thus the stress coming from the cause of stress for which there is dispassion through the fabrication of exertion is exhausted & the stress resulting from the cause of stress for which there is dispassion through the development of equanimity is exhausted. This, bhikkhus, is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.

“puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘yathāsukhaṃ kho me viharato akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti, kusalā dhammā parihāyanti; dukkhāya pana me attānaṃ padahato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti, kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti. yaṃnūnāhaṃ dukkhāya attānaṃ padaheyyan’ti. so dukkhāya attānaṃ padahati. tassa dukkhāya attānaṃ padahato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti. so na aparena samayena dukkhāya attānaṃ padahati. taṃ kissa hetu? yassa hi so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu atthāya dukkhāya attānaṃ padaheyya svāssa attho abhinipphanno hoti. tasmā na aparena samayena dukkhāya attānaṃ padahati.

"Furthermore, the monk notices this: 'When I live according to my pleasure, unskillful mental qualities increase in me & skillful qualities decline. When I exert myself with stress & pain, though, unskillful qualities decline in me & skillful qualities increase. Why don't I exert myself with stress & pain?' So he exerts himself with stress & pain, and while he is exerting himself with stress & pain, unskillful qualities decline in him, & skillful qualities increase. Then at a later time he would no longer exert himself with stress & pain. Why is that? Because he has attained the goal for which he was exerting himself with stress & pain. That is why, at a later time, he would no longer exert himself with stress & pain.

seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, usukāro tejanaṃ dvīsu alātesu ātāpeti paritāpeti ujuṃ karoti kammaniyaṃ. yato kho, bhikkhave, usukārassa tejanaṃ dvīsu alātesu ātāpitaṃ hoti paritāpitaṃ ujuṃ kataṃ kammaniyaṃ, na so taṃ aparena samayena usukāro tejanaṃ dvīsu alātesu ātāpeti paritāpeti ujuṃ karoti kammaniyaṃ. taṃ kissa hetu? yassa hi so, bhikkhave, atthāya usukāro tejanaṃ dvīsu alātesu ātāpeyya paritāpeyya ujuṃ kareyya kammaniyaṃ svāssa attho abhinipphanno hoti. tasmā na aparena samayena usukāro tejanaṃ dvīsu alātesu ātāpeti paritāpeti ujuṃ karoti kammaniyaṃ.

"Suppose a fletcher were to heat & warm an arrow shaft between two flames, making it straight & pliable. Then at a later time he would no longer heat & warm the shaft between two flames, making it straight & pliable. Why is that? Because he has attained the goal for which he was heating & warming the shaft. That is why at a later time he would no longer heat & warm the shaft between two flames, making it straight & pliable.

evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘yathāsukhaṃ kho me viharato akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti, kusalā dhammā parihāyanti; dukkhāya pana me attānaṃ padahato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti, kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti. yaṃnūnāhaṃ dukkhāya attānaṃ padaheyyan’ti. so dukkhāya attānaṃ padahati. tassa dukkhāya attānaṃ padahato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti, kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti. so na aparena samayena dukkhāya attānaṃ padahati. taṃ kissa hetu? yassa hi so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu atthāya dukkhāya attānaṃ padaheyya svāssa attho abhinipphanno hoti. tasmā na aparena samayena dukkhāya attānaṃ padahati. evampi, bhikkhave, saphalo upakkamo hoti, saphalaṃ padhānaṃ.

"In the same way, the monk notices this: 'When I live according to my pleasure, unskillful mental qualities increase in me & skillful qualities decline. When I exert myself with stress & pain, though, unskillful qualities decline in me & skillful qualities increase. Why don't I exert myself with stress & pain?' So he exerts himself with stress & pain, and while he is exerting himself with stress & pain, unskillful qualities decline in him, & skillful qualities increase. Then at a later time he would no longer exert himself with stress & pain. Why is that? Because he has attained the goal for which he was exerting himself with stress & pain. That is why, at a later time, he would no longer exert himself with stress & pain. This is how striving is fruitful, how exertion is fruitful.


Examples of some inherently unpleasant practices are mentioned elsewhere:


AN 4.163

“katamā ca, bhikkhave, dukkhā paṭipadā dandhābhiññā? idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu asubhānupassī kāye viharati, āhāre paṭikūlasaññī, sabbaloke anabhiratisaññī, sabbasaṅkhāresu aniccānupassī; maraṇasaññā kho panassa ajjhattaṃ sūpaṭṭhitā hoti.

"And which is painful practice ... ? There is the case where a monk remains focused on unattractiveness with regard to the body, percipient of loathsomeness with regard to food, percipient of non-delight with regard to the entire world, (and) focused on inconstancy with regard to all fabrications. The perception of death is well established within him.


A reason why some practices may become unpleasant is also mentioned at AN 4.162:


“katamā ca, bhikkhave, dukkhā paṭipadā ... ? idha, bhikkhave, ekacco pakatiyāpi tibbarāgajātiko hoti, abhikkhaṇaṃ rāgajaṃ dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti. pakatiyāpi tibbadosajātiko hoti, abhikkhaṇaṃ dosajaṃ dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti. pakatiyāpi tibbamohajātiko hoti, abhikkhaṇaṃ mohajaṃ dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti.

"And which is painful practice ... ? There is the case where a certain individual is normally of an intensely passionate nature. He perpetually experiences pain & distress born of passion. Or he is normally of an intensely aversive nature. He perpetually experiences pain & distress born of aversion. Or he is normally of an intensely deluded nature. He perpetually experiences pain & distress born of delusion.


The Buddha also goes so far as to accept the appellation 'one who tortures [himself]' (tapassī), saying that what he has tortured were actually akusala dhammas:


AN 8.12

“katamo ca, sīha, pariyāyo, yena maṃ pariyāyena sammā vadamāno vadeyya: ‘tapassī samaṇo gotamo, tapassitāya dhammaṃ deseti, tena ca sāvake vinetī’ti? tapanīyāhaṃ, sīha, pāpake akusale dhamme vadāmi kāyaduccaritaṃ vacīduccaritaṃ manoduccaritaṃ. yassa kho, sīha, tapanīyā pāpakā akusalā dhammā pahīnā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvaṃkatā āyatiṃ anuppādadhammā, tamahaṃ ‘tapassī’ti vadāmi. tathāgatassa kho, sīha, tapanīyā pāpakā akusalā dhammā pahīnā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvaṃkatā āyatiṃ anuppādadhammā. ayaṃ kho, sīha, pariyāyo, yena maṃ pariyāyena sammā vadamāno vadeyya: ‘tapassī samaṇo gotamo, tapassitāya dhammaṃ deseti, tena ca sāvake vinetī’”ti.

And what, Siha, is the line of reasoning by which one speaking rightly could say of me: 'The renunciate Gotama is one who tortures, he professes a teaching of torture and instructs his disciples accordingly'? I say, Siha, that bad, unwholesome states, bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct and mental misconduct are to be tortured. I say that one who has abandoned the bad, unwholesome states that are to be tortured, cut them off at their root, made them like a palmyra stump, annihilated them, so that they are unable to arise again in the future, is one who tortures himself. The Tathagata has abandoned the bad, unwholesome states that are to be tortured, cut them off at their root, made them like a palmyra stump, annihilated them, so that they are unable to arise again in the future. This is the line of reasoning by which one speaking rightly could say of me: 'The renunciate Gotama is one who tortures himself, he professes a teaching of torture and instructs his disciples accordingly'.


So we may try to conclude here that what the Buddha rejected was the performance of unpleasant practices that would not help removing unwholesome states and developing wholesome ones (AN 10.94), or even if they do have that effect, the performance of unpleasant practices for themselves, as a way of 'rough life' (lūkhajīvita, SN 42.12). But even the right type of asceticism has to be undertaken in a balanced way, to avoid having it ending up developing unwholesome states:


AN 6.55

— “nanu te, soṇa, rahogatassa paṭisallīnassa evaṃ cetaso parivitakko udapādi: ‘ye kho keci bhagavato sāvakā āraddhavīriyā viharanti, ahaṃ tesaṃ aññataro. atha ca pana me na anupādāya āsavehi cittaṃ vimuccati, saṃvijjanti kho pana me kule bhogā, sakkā bhogā ca bhuñjituṃ puññāni ca kātuṃ. yaṃnūnāhaṃ sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvattitvā bhoge ca bhuñjeyyaṃ puññāni ca kareyyan’”ti?

— "Just now, as you were meditating in seclusion, didn't this train of thought appear to your awareness: 'Of the Blessed One's disciples who have aroused their persistence, I am one, but my mind is not released from the fermentations through lack of clinging/sustenance. Now, my family has enough wealth that it would be possible to enjoy wealth & make merit. What if I were to disavow the training, return to the lower life, enjoy wealth, & make merit?'"

— “evaṃ, bhante”.

— "Yes, lord."

— “taṃ kiṃ maññasi, soṇa, kusalo tvaṃ pubbe agāriyabhūto vīṇāya tantissare”ti?

— "Now what do you think, Sona. Before, when you were a house-dweller, were you skilled at playing the vina?"

— “evaṃ, bhante”.

— "Yes, lord."

— “taṃ kiṃ maññasi, soṇa, yadā te vīṇāya tantiyo accāyatā honti, api nu te vīṇā tasmiṃ samaye saravatī vā hoti kammaññā vā”ti?

— "And what do you think: when the strings of your vina were too taut, was your vina in tune & playable?"

— “no hetaṃ, bhante”.

— "No, lord."

— “taṃ kiṃ maññasi, soṇa, yadā te vīṇāya tantiyo atisithilā honti, api nu te vīṇā tasmiṃ samaye saravatī vā hoti kammaññā vā”ti?

— "And what do you think: when the strings of your vina were too loose, was your vina in tune & playable?"

— “no hetaṃ, bhante”.

— "No, lord."

— “yadā pana te, soṇa, vīṇāya tantiyo na accāyatā honti nātisithilā same guṇe patiṭṭhitā, api nu te vīṇā tasmiṃ samaye saravatī vā hoti kammaññā vā”ti?

— "And what do you think: when the strings of your vina were neither too taut nor too loose, but tuned to be right on pitch, was your vina in tune & playable?"

— “evaṃ, bhante”.

— "Yes, lord."

— “evamevaṃ kho, soṇa, accāraddhavīriyaṃ uddhaccāya saṃvattati, atisithilavīriyaṃ kosajjāya saṃvattati. tasmātiha tvaṃ, soṇa, vīriyasamathaṃ adhiṭṭhahaṃ, indriyānañca samataṃ paṭivijjha, tattha ca nimittaṃ gaṇhāhī”ti.

— "In the same way, Sona, over-aroused persistence leads to restlessness, overly slack persistence leads to laziness. Thus you should determine the right pitch for your persistence, attune the pitch of the [five] faculties [to that], and there pick up your theme."



It may also be important to note that being ātāpī does not necessarily refer to unpleasant practice, since it can constitute the basis to enter the jhānas:


SN 48.40

idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato uppajjati dukkhindriyaṃ. so evaṃ pajānāti: ‘uppannaṃ kho me idaṃ dukkhindriyaṃ, tañca kho sanimittaṃ sanidānaṃ sasaṅkhāraṃ sappaccayaṃ. tañca animittaṃ anidānaṃ asaṅkhāraṃ appaccayaṃ dukkhindriyaṃ uppajjissatīti: netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati’. so dukkhindriyañca pajānāti, dukkhindriyasamudayañca pajānāti, dukkhindriyanirodhañca pajānāti, yattha cuppannaṃ dukkhindriyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati tañca pajānāti. kattha cuppannaṃ dukkhindriyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati? idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati: ettha cuppannaṃ dukkhindriyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, ‘bhikkhu aññāsi dukkhindriyassa nirodhaṃ, tadatthāya cittaṃ upasaṃharati’”.

Here, bhikkhus, while a bhikkhu is remaining heedful, ardent and striving, the pain faculty arises. He understands thus: 'The pain faculty has arisen in me; it possesses a feature, a cause, a construction, a condition. It is impossible that the pain faculty would arise without a feature, a cause, a construction, a condition'. He understands the pain faculty, he understands its origin, he understands its cessation, and he understands where the arisen pain faculty ceases completely. And where does the pain faculty cease completely? Here, bhikkhous, a bhikkhu, detached from sensuality, detached from unwholesome states, having entered in the first jhāna, remains therein, with thoughts, with thought processes, exaltation and well-being engendered by detachment: here the arisen pain faculty ceases completely. This is called, bhikkhus, 'a bhikkhu who knows the cessation of the pain faculty, and who directs his mind to that end.'


The same is then repeated about domanass·indriya sukh·indriya somanass·indriya upekkh·indriya, respectively about the second, third, fourth jhānas and saññā·vedayita·nirodha. At MN 19, the same expression appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato (remaining heedful, ardent and striving) is similarly used to describe the state in which the Buddha was when he reached the three vijjās just before his awakening.



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attā: self, ego, soul, personality, individuality. This term actually designates an illusion, since all phenomena are anattā.



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attavādupādāna: [attā+vāda+upādāna] clinging to the belief in self. Such beliefs are explained in the Brahmajāla Sutta (DN 1), in which 53 out of the 62 views examined relate to the belief in self (views n°9 to 16 are not included). It also constitutes one of the four items that come in the stock definition of upādāna.

This attachment is compared to a leash:


SN 22.99

“seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, sā gaddulabaddho daḷhe khīle vā thambhe vā upanibaddho tameva khīlaṃ vā thambhaṃ vā anuparidhāvati anuparivattati; evameva kho, bhikkhave, assutavā puthujjano ariyānaṃ adassāvī ariyadhammassa akovido ariyadhamme avinīto, sappurisānaṃ adassāvī sappurisadhammassa akovido sappurisadhamme avinīto rūpaṃ attato samanupassati rūpavantaṃ vā attānaṃ attani vā rūpaṃ rūpasmiṃ vā attānaṃ; vedanaṃ attato samanupassati... saññaṃ attato samanupassati... saṅkhāre attato samanupassati... viññāṇaṃ attato samanupassati viññāṇavantaṃ vā attānaṃ attani vā viññāṇaṃ viññāṇasmiṃ vā attānaṃ.

Just as a dog, tied by a leash to a post or stake, keeps running around and circling around that very post or stake; in the same way, an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person — who has no regard for noble ones, is not well-versed or disciplined in their Dhamma; who has no regard for people of integrity, is not well-versed or disciplined in their Dhamma — assumes form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form. He assumes feeling to be the self... He assumes perception to be the self... He assumes (mental) fabrications to be the self... He assumes consciousness to be the self, or the self as possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in the self, or the self as in consciousness.

so rūpaññeva anuparidhāvati anuparivattati, vedanaññeva ... saññaññeva... saṅkhāreyeva... viññāṇaññeva anuparidhāvati anuparivattati. so rūpaṃ anuparidhāvaṃ anuparivattaṃ, vedanaṃ ... saññaṃ... saṅkhāre... viññāṇaṃ anuparidhāvaṃ anuparivattaṃ, na parimuccati rūpamhā... vedanāya... saññāya... saṅkhārehi... viññāṇamhā, na parimuccati jātiyā jarāmaraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi. ‘na parimuccati dukkhasmā’ti vadāmi”.

He keeps running around and circling around that very form... that very feeling... that very perception... those very fabrications... that very consciousness. He is not set loose from form, not set loose from feeling... from perception... from fabrications... not set loose from consciousness. He is not set loose from birth, aging, & death; from sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, & despairs. He is not set loose, I tell you, from suffering & stress.


This delusion is described as being the source of the mistake that brings about the idea of an existing self:


SN 22.47

“ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā anekavihitaṃ attānaṃ samanupassamānā samanupassanti, sabbete pañcupādānakkhandhe samanupassanti, etesaṃ vā aññataraṃ. katame pañca? idha, bhikkhave, assutavā puthujjano ariyānaṃ adassāvī ariyadhammassa akovido ariyadhamme avinīto, sappurisānaṃ adassāvī sappurisadhammassa akovido sappurisadhamme avinīto rūpaṃ attato samanupassati, rūpavantaṃ vā attānaṃ; attani vā rūpaṃ, rūpasmiṃ vā attānaṃ. vedanaṃ. saññaṃ. saṅkhāre. viññāṇaṃ attato samanupassati, viññāṇavantaṃ vā attānaṃ; attani vā viññāṇaṃ, viññāṇasmiṃ vā attānaṃ”.

Monks, whatever contemplatives or brahmans who assume in various ways when assuming a self, all assume the five clinging-aggregates, or a certain one of them. Which five? There is the case where an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person — who has no regard for noble ones, is not well-versed or disciplined in their Dhamma; who has no regard for men of integrity, is not well-versed or disciplined in their Dhamma — assumes form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form. He assumes feeling to be the self... He assumes perception to be the self... He assumes (mental) fabrications to be the self... He assumes consciousness to be the self, or the self as possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in the self, or the self as in consciousness.

“iti ayañceva samanupassanā ‘asmī’ti cassa avigataṃ hoti. ‘asmī’ti kho pana, bhikkhave, avigate pañcannaṃ indriyānaṃ avakkanti hoti: cakkhundriyassa sotindriyassa ghānindriyassa jivhindriyassa kāyindriyassa.

Thus, both this assumption & the understanding, 'I am,' occur to him. And so it is with reference to the understanding 'I am' that there is the appearance of the five faculties — eye, ear, nose, tongue, & body (the senses of vision, hearing, smell, taste, & touch).

atthi, bhikkhave, mano, atthi dhammā, atthi avijjādhātu. avijjāsamphassajena, bhikkhave, vedayitena phuṭṭhassa assutavato puthujjanassa ‘asmī’tipissa hoti; ‘ayamahamasmī’tipissa hoti; ‘bhavissan’tipissa hoti; ‘na bhavissan’tipissa hoti; ‘rūpī bhavissan’tipissa hoti; ‘arūpī bhavissan’tipissa hoti; ‘saññī bhavissan’tipissa hoti; ‘asaññī bhavissan’tipissa hoti; ‘nevasaññīnāsaññī bhavissan’tipissa hoti”.

Now, there is the intellect, there are ideas (mental qualities), there is the property of ignorance. To an uninstructed run-of-the-mill person, touched by experience born of the contact of ignorance, there occur (the thoughts): 'I am,' 'I am thus,' 'I shall be,' 'I shall not be,' 'I shall be possessed of form,' 'I shall be formless,' 'I shall be percipient (conscious),' 'I shall be non-percipient,' or 'I shall be neither percipient nor non-percipient.'


The exact same description occurs also at MN 109 in a definition of sakkāya·diṭṭhi.

At SN 22.44, the same description is again given to explain the expression 'sakkāya·samudaya·gāminī paṭipada' (the path leading to the arising of self-identification), and it is also equated to 'dukkha·samudaya·gāminī samanupassanā' (a way of seeing things that leads to the arising of dukkha).


Sometimes, the stock expression 'rūpaṃ attato samanupassati rūpavantaṃ vā attānaṃ attani vā rūpaṃ rūpasmiṃ vā attānaṃ' (he assumes form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form) is replaced by 'rūpaṃ ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’’ti samanupassati' (he regards Form as 'This is mine. This is my self. This is what I am'). Here in the context of an explanation about upādāna:


SN 22.8

kathañca, bhikkhave, upādāparitassanā hoti? idha, bhikkhave, assutavā puthujjano rūpaṃ ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’’ti samanupassati. tassa taṃ rūpaṃ vipariṇamati aññathā hoti. tassa rūpavipariṇāmaññathābhāvā uppajjanti sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā. vedanaṃ... saññaṃ... saṅkhāre... viññāṇaṃ ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’’ti samanupassati. tassa taṃ viññāṇaṃ vipariṇamati aññathā hoti. tassa viññāṇavipariṇāmaññathābhāvā uppajjanti sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, upādāparitassanā hoti.

And how, bhikkhus, is there agitation through clinging? Here, bhikkhus, an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person regards Form as 'This is mine. This is my self. This is what I am' His form changes & alters, and he falls into sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair over its change & alteration. He regards Feeling... Perception... Fabrications... Consciousness as 'This is mine. This is my self. This is what I am' His consciousness changes & alters, and he falls into sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair over its change & alteration. Thus, bhikkhus, there is agitation through clinging.


As we can also see here, atta·vād·upādāna has for consequence 'agitation through clinging' (upādāparitassanā).

The formula ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’’ti is also used to explain another way the expression 'sakkāya·samudaya·gāminī paṭipada' (the path leading to the arising of self-identification), and is applied to the six senses, their objects, their corresponding viññāṇa, their respective contacts, and the vedanā that arises subsquently:


MN 148

“ayaṃ kho pana, bhikkhave, sakkāyasamudayagāminī paṭipadā: cakkhuṃ ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’’ti samanupassati; rūpe ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’’ti samanupassati; cakkhuviññāṇaṃ ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’’ti samanupassati; cakkhusamphassaṃ ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’’ti samanupassati; vedanaṃ ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’’ti samanupassati; taṇhaṃ ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’’ti samanupassati; sotaṃ... ghānaṃ... jivhaṃ... kāyaṃ... manaṃ ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’’ti samanupassati, dhamme... samanupassati, manoviññāṇaṃ... samanupassati, manosamphassaṃ... samanupassati, vedanaṃ... samanupassati, taṇhaṃ ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’’ti samanupassati.

"This, monks, is the path of practice leading to self-identification. One assumes about the eye that 'This is me, this is my self, this is what I am.' One assumes about forms... One assumes about consciousness at the eye... One assumes about contact at the eye... One assumes about feeling... One assumes about craving that 'This is me, this is my self, this is what I am.' One assumes about the ear... the nose... the tongue... the body... the intellect that 'This is me, this is my self, this is what I am.' One assumes about ideas... One assumes about consciousness at the intellect... One assumes about contact at the intellect... One assumes about feeling... One assumes about craving that 'This is me, this is my self, this is what I am.'


MN 22 provides a slightly different formulation of how atta·vād·upādāna comes to be:


“chayimāni, bhikkhave, diṭṭhiṭṭhānāni. katamāni cha? idha, bhikkhave, assutavā puthujjano... rūpaṃ ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’ti samanupassati; vedanaṃ... saññaṃ... saṅkhāre... yampi taṃ diṭṭhaṃ sutaṃ mutaṃ viññātaṃ pattaṃ pariyesitaṃ, anuvicaritaṃ manasā tampi ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’ti samanupassati; yampi taṃ diṭṭhiṭṭhānaṃ, so loko so attā, so pecca bhavissāmi nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo, sassatisamaṃ tatheva ṭhassāmīti, tampi ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’ti samanupassati.

Monks, there are these six view-positions. Which six? There is the case where an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person... assumes about form: 'This is me, this is my self, this is what I am.' He assumes about feeling... perception... fabrications... about what seen, heard, sensed, cognized, attained, sought after, pondered by the intellect: 'This is me, this is my self, this is what I am.' He assumes about the view-position — 'This cosmos is the self. After death this I will be constant, permanent, eternal, not subject to change. I will stay just like that for an eternity': 'This is me, this is my self, this is what I am.'


The way to abandon atta·vād·upādāna is by seeing anatta in the five khandhas:


MN 8

“yā imā, cunda, anekavihitā diṭṭhiyo loke uppajjanti attavādapaṭisaṃyuttā vā lokavādapaṭisaṃyuttā vā yattha cetā diṭṭhiyo uppajjanti yattha ca anusenti yattha ca samudācaranti taṃ ‘netaṃ mama, nesohamasmi, na me so attā’ti evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññā passato evametāsaṃ diṭṭhīnaṃ pahānaṃ hoti, evametāsaṃ diṭṭhīnaṃ paṭinissaggo hoti.

"Cunda, as to those several views that arise in the world concerning self-doctrines and world-doctrines, if [the object] in which these views arise, in which they underlie and become active, is seen with right wisdom as it actually is, thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self' — then the abandoning of these views, their discarding, takes place in him [who thus sees].



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avīci: name of a hell. It is described in the Vinaya as a frightful (bhayānaka) place having four doors where one who commits a split or schism in the Sangha (saṅghabheda) goes. Iti 89 indicates that this is where Devadatta, who created the first split in the Sangha, went. A description of hell is given at MN 130.



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avihiṃsā: [a+vihiṃsā] harmlessness, nonviolence, inoffensiveness.

There is no direct definition of the term in the suttas. It seems to have been a well-known concept at the time that did not require much explanation. It can be seen as a principle underlying sammā·vācā, sammā·kammanta and sammā·ājīva.

Avihiṃsā appears most prominently in avihiṃsā·saṅkappa, one of the three constituents of sammā·saṅkappa, which are also termed kusalā saṅkappā at MN 78. Alternatively, it also appears in the compound avihiṃsā·vitakka, which seems to be a synonym for avihiṃsā·saṅkappa. See also this blog article, arguing that, since avihiṃsā is set apart from a·byāpāda in those two lists, the word probably refers more specifically to instances where one harms others without ill-will or malevolence.

In several suttas (e.g. MN 114, AN 5.200) two of the three dhammas listed in sammā·saṅkappa appear in the same order, and avihiṃsā is replaced as the third by avihesā (non-harming). Another synonym is ahimsā (inoffensiveness):


AN 3.45

sabbhi dānaṃ upaññattaṃ, ahiṃsā saṃyamo damo.

The virtuous prescribe giving, inoffensiveness, self-control, and self-taming.


SN 10.4

“yassa sabbamahorattaṃ, ahiṃsāya rato mano mettaṃ so sabbabhūtesu, veraṃ tassa na kenacī”ti.

One whose mind takes delight in inoffensiveness all day and night, who has loving-kindness for all beings, has enmity towards none.


Inoffensiveness (ahiṃsā) is also nobility:


Dhp 270

na tena ariyo hoti, yena pāṇāni hiṃsati. ahiṃsā sabbapāṇānaṃ, “ariyo”ti pavuccati.

One who injures living beings is ignoble. One who is inoffensive towards all living beings is said to be a noble one.


In the Dhātu·vibhaṅga of the Abhidhamma, karuṇa is said to be inherent to avihiṃsā·dhātu: 'yā sattesu karuṇā karuṇāyanā karuṇāyitattaṃ karuṇācetovimutti, ayaṃ vuccati “avihiṃsādhātu”'. This statement finds an echo in various parts of the Sutta Piṭaka, as for example in the Dhammapada:


129. sabbe tasanti daṇḍassa, sabbe bhāyanti maccuno.
attānaṃ upamaṃ katvā, na haneyya na ghātaye.

129. All tremble at the rod, all are fearful of death.
Drawing the parallel to yourself, neither kill nor get others to kill.

130. sabbe tasanti daṇḍassa, sabbesaṃ jīvitaṃ piyaṃ.
attānaṃ upamaṃ katvā, na haneyya na ghātaye.

130. All tremble at the rod, all hold their life dear.
Drawing the parallel to yourself, neither kill nor get others to kill.


At AN 2.168, avihiṃsā is juxtaposed with soceyya (purity/purification). At Sn 294, the word is juxtaposed with maddava (mildness), soracca (gentleness) and khanti (forbearance). The first two find echo in expressions such as that defining pharusa·vāca veramaṇī (abstinence from harsh speech):


AN 10.176

yā sā vācā nelā kaṇṇasukhā pemanīyā hadayaṅgamā porī bahujanakantā bahujanamanāpā, tathārūpiṃ vācaṃ bhāsitā hoti.

He speaks words that are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that go to the heart, that are polite, appealing & pleasing to people at large.


Khanti (forbearance) is the word that is most often juxtaposed to avihiṃsā, a connection that is exemplified in many places, such as in the simile of the saw:


MN 21

“ubhatodaṇḍakena cepi, bhikkhave, kakacena corā ocarakā aṅgamaṅgāni okanteyyuṃ, tatrāpi yo mano padūseyya, na me so tena sāsanakaro. tatrāpi vo, bhikkhave, evaṃ sikkhitabbaṃ: ‘na ceva no cittaṃ vipariṇataṃ bhavissati, na ca pāpikaṃ vācaṃ nicchāressāma, hitānukampī ca viharissāma mettacittā na dosantarā. tañca puggalaṃ mettāsahagatena cetasā pharitvā viharissāma tadārammaṇañca sabbāvantaṃ lokaṃ mettāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyābajjhena pharitvā viharissāmā’ti. evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṃ.

"Monks, even if bandits were to carve you up savagely, limb by limb, with a two-handled saw, he among you who let his heart get angered even at that would not be doing my bidding. Even then you should train yourselves: 'Our minds will be unaffected and we will say no evil words. We will remain sympathetic, with a mind of good will, and with no inner hate. We will keep pervading these people with an awareness imbued with good will and, beginning with them, we will keep pervading the entire world with an awareness imbued with good will — abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.' That's how you should train yourselves.

“imañca tumhe, bhikkhave, kakacūpamaṃ ovādaṃ abhikkhaṇaṃ manasi kareyyātha. passatha no tumhe, bhikkhave, taṃ vacanapathaṃ, aṇuṃ vā thūlaṃ vā, yaṃ tumhe nādhivāseyyāthā”ti?

"Monks, if you attend constantly to this admonition on the simile of the saw, do you see any aspects of speech, slight or gross, that you could not endure?"

— “no hetaṃ, bhante”.

— "No, lord."


Another striking example is given at SN 35.88:


— “sace pana puṇṇa, sunāparantakā manussā daṇḍena pahāraṃ dassanti, tatra pana te, puṇṇa, kinti bhavissatī”ti?

— "But if they hit you with a stick...?"

— “sace me, bhante, sunāparantakā manussā daṇḍena pahāraṃ dassanti, tatra me evaṃ bhavissati: ‘bhaddakā vatime sunāparantakā manussā, subhaddakā vatime sunāparantakā manussā, yaṃ me nayime satthena pahāraṃ dentī’ti. evamettha, bhagavā, bhavissati; evamettha, sugata, bhavissatī”ti.

— "...I will think, 'These Sunaparanta people are civilized, very civilized, in that they don't hit me with a knife'..."

— “sace pana te, puṇṇa, sunāparantakā manussā satthena pahāraṃ dassanti, tatra pana te, puṇṇa, kinti bhavissatī”ti?

— "But if they hit you with a knife...?"

— “sace me, bhante, sunāparantakā manussā satthena pahāraṃ dassanti, tatra me evaṃ bhavissati: ‘bhaddakā vatime sunāparantakā manussā, subhaddakā vatime sunāparantakā manussā, yaṃ maṃ nayime tiṇhena satthena jīvitā voropentī’ti. evamettha, bhagavā, bhavissati; evamettha, sugata, bhavissatī”ti.

— "...I will think, 'These Sunaparanta people are civilized, very civilized, in that they don't take my life with a sharp knife'..."

— “sace pana taṃ, puṇṇa, sunāparantakā manussā tiṇhena satthena jīvitā voropessanti, tatra pana te, puṇṇa, kinti bhavissatī”ti?

— "But if they take your life with a sharp knife...?"

— “sace maṃ, bhante, sunāparantakā manussā tiṇhena satthena jīvitā voropessanti, tatra me evaṃ bhavissati: ‘santi kho tassa bhagavato sāvakā kāyena ca jīvitena ca aṭṭīyamānā harāyamānā jigucchamānā satthahārakaṃ pariyesanti, taṃ me idaṃ apariyiṭṭhaññeva satthahārakaṃ laddhan’ti. evamettha, bhagavā, bhavissati; evamettha, sugata, bhavissatī”ti.

— "If they take my life with a sharp knife, I will think, 'There are disciples of the Blessed One who — horrified, humiliated, and disgusted by the body and by life — have sought for an assassin, but here I have met my assassin without searching for him.' That is what I will think, O Blessed One. That is what I will think, O One Well-gone."

— “sādhu sādhu, puṇṇa! sakkhissasi kho tvaṃ, puṇṇa, iminā damūpasamena samannāgato sunāparantasmiṃ janapade vatthuṃ. yassa dāni tvaṃ, puṇṇa, kālaṃ maññasī”ti.

— "Good, Punna, very good. Possessing such calm and self-control you are fit to dwell among the Sunaparantans. Now it is time to do as you see fit."


SN 47.19 also juxtaposes metta·cittatā (having a mind of good will) and anudayatā (sympathy) to avihiṃsā:


SN 47.19

kathañca, bhikkhave, paraṃ rakkhanto attānaṃ rakkhati? khantiyā, avihiṃsāya, mettacittatāya, anudayatāya. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, paraṃ rakkhanto attānaṃ rakkhati.

"And how do you watch after yourself when watching after others? Through endurance, through harmlessness, through a mind of goodwill, & through sympathy. This is how you watch after yourself when watching after others.


SN 14.12 explains how avihiṃsā originates and leads to wholesome action:


SN 14.12

“avihiṃsādhātuṃ, bhikkhave, paṭicca uppajjati avihiṃsāsaññā, avihiṃsāsaññaṃ paṭicca uppajjati avihiṃsāsaṅkappo, avihiṃsāsaṅkappaṃ paṭicca uppajjati avihiṃsāchando, avihiṃsāchandaṃ paṭicca uppajjati avihiṃsāpariḷāho, avihiṃsāpariḷāhaṃ paṭicca uppajjati avihiṃsāpariyesanā; avihiṃsāpariyesanaṃ, bhikkhave, pariyesamāno sutavā ariyasāvako tīhi ṭhānehi sammā paṭipajjati kāyena, vācāya, manasā.

On account of the harmlessness element there arises the perception of harmlessness; on account of the perception of harmlessness there arises an aspiration to harmlessness; on account of the aspiration to harmlessness there arises a desire for harmlessness; on account of the desire for harmlessness there arises a passion for harmlessness; on account of the passion for harmlessness there arises a quest for harmlessness. Engaged in the quest for harmlessness, an instructed noble disciple acts rightly in three ways: by body, speech, and mind.


Practicing harmlessness is behaving like a bee in a flower:


Dhp 49

yathāpi bhamaro pupphaṃ, vaṇṇagandhamaheṭhayaṃ, paleti rasamādāya, evaṃ gāme munī care.

As a bee gathers honey from the flower without injuring its color or fragrance, even so the sage goes on his alms-round in the village.


Lacking avihiṃsā is extensively described as bringing unpleasant results:


Dhp 133

māvoca pharusaṃ kañci, vuttā paṭivadeyyu taṃ dukkhā hi sārambhakathā, paṭidaṇḍā phuseyyu taṃ.

Speak harshly to no one, or the words will be thrown right back at you. Contentious talk is painful, for you get struck by rods in return.


Dhp 137-140

yo daṇḍena adaṇḍesu, appaduṭṭhesu dussati dasannamaññataraṃ ṭhānaṃ, khippameva nigacchati: vedanaṃ pharusaṃ jāniṃ, sarīrassa ca bhedanaṃ. garukaṃ vāpi ābādhaṃ, cittakkhepañca pāpuṇe. rājato vā upasaggaṃ, abbhakkhānañca dāruṇaṃ. parikkhayañca ñātīnaṃ, bhogānañca pabhaṅguraṃ. atha vāssa agārāni, aggi ḍahati pāvako. kāyassa bhedā duppañño, nirayaṃ sopapajjati.

Whoever, with a rod harasses an innocent man, unarmed, quickly falls into any of ten things: harsh pains, devastation, a broken body, grave illness, mental derangement, trouble with the government, violent slander, relatives lost, property dissolved, houses burned down. At the break-up of the body this one with no discernment, reappears in hell.


SN 3.15

“vilumpateva puriso, yāvassa upakappati. yadā caññe vilumpanti, so vilutto viluppati.

A man may plunder as long as it serves his ends, but when others are plundered, he who has plundered gets plundered in turn.

“ṭhānañhi maññati bālo, yāva pāpaṃ na paccati. yadā ca paccati pāpaṃ, atha dukkhaṃ nigacchati.

A fool thinks, 'Now's my chance,' as long as his evil has yet to ripen. But when it ripens, the fool falls into pain.

“hantā labhati hantāraṃ, jetāraṃ labhate jayaṃ. akkosako ca akkosaṃ, rosetārañca rosako. atha kammavivaṭṭena, so vilutto viluppatī”ti.

Killing, you gain your killer. Conquering, you gain one who will conquer you; insulting, insult; harassing, harassment. And so, through the cycle of action, he who has plundered gets plundered in turn.


Abandoning non-harmlessness and taking up avihiṃsā prevents bad experiences from arising and causes pleasant ones to arise in the future:


Dhp 131-132

sukhakāmāni bhūtāni, yo daṇḍena vihiṃsati. attano sukhamesāno, pecca so na labhate sukhaṃ.

Whoever takes a rod to harm living beings desiring ease, when he himself is looking for ease, will meet with no ease after death.

sukhakāmāni bhūtāni, yo daṇḍena na hiṃsati. attano sukhamesāno, pecca so labhate sukhaṃ.

Whoever doesn't take a rod to harm living beings desiring ease, when he himself is looking for ease, will meet with ease after death.


MN 135

“idha, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā sattānaṃ viheṭhakajātiko hoti, pāṇinā vā leḍḍunā vā daṇḍena vā satthena vā. so tena kammena evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati. no ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati, sace manussattaṃ āgacchati yattha yattha paccājāyati bavhābādho hoti. bavhābādhasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ sattānaṃ viheṭhakajātiko hoti pāṇinā vā leḍḍunā vā daṇḍena vā satthena vā.

Furthermore, there is the case where a certain woman or man has a tendency to injure living beings with the hand, with a clod, with a stick, or with a knife. From adopting & carrying out such actions, then on the break-up of the body, after death, this person re-appears in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. Or, if he/she does not reappear in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell, but instead returns to the human state, then he/she is sickly wherever reborn. This is the way leading to being sickly, namely being one who has a tendency to injure living beings with the hand, with a clod, with a stick, or with a knife.

“idha pana, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā sattānaṃ aviheṭhakajātiko hoti pāṇinā vā leḍḍunā vā daṇḍena vā satthena vā. so tena kammena evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. no ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati, sace manussattaṃ āgacchati yattha yattha paccājāyati appābādho hoti. appābādhasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ sattānaṃ aviheṭhakajātiko hoti pāṇinā vā leḍḍunā vā daṇḍena vā satthena vā.

But there is the case where a certain woman or man does not have a tendency to injure living beings with the hand, with a clod, with a stick, or with a knife. Or, if he/she does not reappear in the good destinations, in the heavenly world, but instead returns to the human state, then he/she is healthy wherever reborn. This is the way leading to being healthy, namely being one who, abandoning the taking of life, abstains from taking life does not have a tendency to injure living beings with the hand, with a clod, with a stick, or with a knife.


Dhp 300

suppabuddhaṃ pabujjhanti, sadā gotamasāvakā. yesaṃ divā ca ratto ca, ahiṃsāya rato mano.

Those disciples of Gotama ever awaken happily whose minds by day and night delight in the practice of non-violence.


Dharmacāri Nāgapriya writes: "The early Buddhist vocabulary includes an important class of words that, while denoting highly positive qualities, take a grammatically negative form. Avihiṃsa is a leading example of this. To translate the term as ‘non-violence’ doesn’t reflect the positive nuance of the quality to which it refers. Notwithstanding, it is worth looking at the quality in question from both a negative and a positive point of view in order to bring its nature more clearly to light. First of all – and in negative terms – avihiṃsa can be understood as an application of the general principle of renunciation: the saint renounces all violence whether physical, verbal, or emotional: Whoever in this world harms a living creature, whether once-born or twice- born, whoever has nocompassion for a living creature, him one should know to be an outcaste. (Sn.117) He gives up coercion of any kind and thus abandons the ‘power mode’, the style of relating to others purely as objects and means of his own gratification, adopting instead the ‘love mode’, the appreciation of others as individual, feelingful subjects meriting sensitive consideration and respect. This entails abandoning a host of negative mental states such as kodha or fury (Sn.1), kopa or ill-temper and grudge (Sn.6), upanāha orrancour/enmity (Sn.116), paccuṭṭapannā or hostility (Sn.245), usuyyā or envy (Sn.245), atipāti or violent destructiveness (Sn.248), paṭigha (Sn.148) or malicious rage, and dosa or hatred (Sn.328). One of the distinguishing features of the Sutta-Nipāta is the plethora of different nasty mental states that it identifies. This laid some of the foundations for the later work of the Abhidhamma. Again the terms used are fluid and non-technical. By considering the terms as a whole we can get a feeling for the flavour of what the saint is enjoined to abandon. At the same time, it is important to appreciate the positive counterpart of this renunciation of violent negativity. This is expressed most sublimely in the Mettā Sutta: Just as a mother would protect with her own life her own son, her only son, so one should cultivate an unbounded mind towards all beings, and loving-kindness towards all the world. One should cultivate an unbounded mind, above and below and across, without obstruction, without enmity, without rivalry. (Sn.149-50)"



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avijjā: [a+vijjā] nescience, ignorance. Synonym of moha. Avijjā is defined by the Buddha as consisting of ignorance regarding the four noble truths at SN 12.2. At AN 3.67, avijjā is explained as having moha for synonym. This term appears in various contexts:

1) as the first link of paṭicca·samuppāda, giving rise to saṅkhāras. Being the first link of the chain, it is implicitly presented as the deepest cause of dukkha, although at AN 10.61 the Buddha explains how avijjā arises on account of various phenomena. At MN 9, Sāriputta decribes avijjā as both conditioned by āsavas and giving rise to them.

2) as one of the three āsavas.

3) as one of the five uddhambhāgiya-saṃyojanas, by which even an anāgāmī is bound and which vanishes only at the attainment of arahatta.

4) as one of the seven anusaya. Iti (KN4.40) “avijjā, bhikkhave, pubbaṅgamā akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ samāpattiyā anvadeva ahirikaṃ anottappaṃ



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āvuso: friend - usually in conversation between bhikkhus, a form of polite address 'friend, brother Sir', although quite informal since it is used by the disciple as well as the master in return.



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āyasmā: venerable - lit: old. Used as a respectful appellation of a bhikkhu of some standing.



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āyatana: sphere, stretch, extent, reach, sphere of perception. The word appears mainly in two contexts:

1) as refering both to the six physical sense organs, i.e. cakkhu, sota, ghāna, jivhā, kāya, mana, as well as to their respective objects, i.e. rūpa visible objects, sadda sounds, gandha smells, rasa tastes, phoṭṭhabba tangible bodily phenomena, dhamma mental phenomena.

2) to designate each of the four formless jhānas.



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ayoniso manasikāra: inappropiate attention, unwise reflection.



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B
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y

bala
bāla
bhadante
Bhagavā
bhante
bhava
bhāvanā
bhāvanāmayapaññā
bhavarāga
bhavataṇhā
bhesajja
bhikkhu
bhikkhuni
bho
bhojane mattaññutā
bodhi
bodhipakkhiyadhammā
bodhisatta
bojjhaṅga
Brahmā
brahmacariya
brahmakāyika
Brahmavihāra
Buddha
Buddhānussati
Buddhe aveccappasāda
byāpāda



bala: power, strengh. There are various lists, the most frequent being:

1. saddhā
2. vīriya
3. sati
4. samādhi
5. paññā

The balas are defined at AN 5.14. Actually, they are identical to the five spiritual indriyas, being just a different way to explain the same thing, as the Buddha explains it at SN 48.43.


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bāla:

1) (adj:) ignorant (often with reference to moral ignorance, about puthujjanas), foolish (as contrasted with paṇḍita).

2) (n:) ignorant, foolish person. The Bālapaṇḍita Sutta (MN 129) describes in detail what kind of individual the Buddha calls a bāla.

3) (adj:) young, new, newly risen (of the sun).

4) (n:) child; in wider application meaning a youth under 16 years.


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bhad(d)ante: auspicious one, propitious one, reverend sir, venerable one. Term of Vedic origin explained as synonymous with kalyāṇa, which is used to address people of esteem. Bhante is a contracted form.


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Bhagavā: venerable, fortunate, blessed, sublime. Generally designates the Buddha.


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bhante: reverential term of address for the Buddha or any bhikkhu of some standing. Equivalent of 'venerable', 'reverend sir'. Considered as a contracted form of bhadante.


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bhava: becoming, process of existence. The term appears in various contexts:

1) as the tenth link of paṭicca·samuppāda, conditoned by upādāna and giving rise to jāti. In this context, bhava is defined as threefold by the Buddha at SN 12.2:

1. kāma-bhava
2. rūpa-bhava
3. arūpa-bhava

2) as one of the three types of taṇhā: see bhava-taṇhā.


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bhāvanā: cultivation by the mind, mental development, meditation - lit: calling to existence, producing.


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bhāvanāmayapaññā: [bhāvanā+maya+paññā] wisdom/ insight induced by mental cultivation or meditation.


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bhavarāga: [bhava+rāga] craving for becoming, for repeated existence. Synonym of bhava-taṇhā. It is one of the seven anusayas.


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bhavataṇhā: [bhava+taṇhā] craving for becoming, for repeated existence. Synonym of bhava·rāga. It is one of the three types of taṇhā.


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bhesajja: remedy, medicament, medicine. It is one of the four paccayas, requisites of a bhikkhu's life.


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bhikkhu: person who has decided to dedicate his life to the practice of dhamma and adopts the medicant life, living on what is given spontaneously. A bhikkhu is characterized by poverty, celibacy, renunciation, humility and steadfastness in practice. He submits himself to the rules he chose to undertake, and which are defined by the pātimokkha, having eventually amounted to 227. He can however give up this life at any time by an official act if he finds himself unable to keep following it. Female bhikkhus are called bhikkhunis.


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bhikkhuni: Female bhikkhu. Bhikkhunis have to abserve 311 precepts.


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bho: familiar term of address which is used to inferiors and equals by brahmins. Brahmins generally address the Buddha by the expression 'Bho Gotama', which denotes some lack of respect and reveals their propensity to arrogance.


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bhojane mattaññutā: [bhojana mattā+aññū+] moderation with food - lit: knowing the right measure in food. This practice is described in a stock formula which is analyzed in detail here. Derivate: bhojane mattaññū.


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bodhi: awakening, enlightenment, supreme knowledge. Consists of the full understanding of the four ariya·saccas and may be equated to arahatta. There are seven main mental states/ processes leading to bodhi: the seven bojjhaṅgas. A list of 37 phenomenas is also mentioned: the 37 bodhipakkhiya-dhammās.


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bodhipakkhiyadhammā: [bodhi+pakkhiya+dhamma] things/ phenomenas/ mental states siding with enlightenment, of which there are 37, listed in seven sets:

1-4. the four satipaṭṭhānas
5-8. the four sammappadhānas
9-12. the four iddhipādas
13-17. the five spiritual indriyas
18-22. the five balas
23-29. the seven bojjhaṅgas
30-37. the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga

They are expounded in detail at MN 77, although without being called by this appellation.


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bodhisatta: [bodhi+satta] being destined to become a sammā·Sambuddha. The Buddha uses this term only to refer to himself at a time prior to his enlightenment.


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bojjhaṅga: [bojjh+aṅga] factor of awakening, of enlightenment. Numbered as seven, they are also often called sambojjhaṅgas. These seven are:

1. sati
2. dhamma·vicaya
3. vīriya
4. pīti
5. passaddhi
6. samādhi
7. upekkhā.

They are often described as viveka-nissitaṃ virāga-nissitaṃ nirodha-nissitaṃ vossagga-pariṇāmiṃ: based on detachment/ seclusion, based on desirelessness, based on cessation, resulting in release.


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brāhmaṇa: a member of the Brahman caste - also used for a man leading a pure & ascetic life, often even syn. with arahant.


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Brahmā: is the supreme divinity of ancient brahmanism, considered as the creator of the universe and worshiped by brahmins through sacrifices and rituals. The Buddha gives this appellation to the Brahmakāyika, devas living in rūpa-loka the form realm and a-rūpa-loka the formless realm, which are situated beyond the lower worlds and the lower paradises of kāma-loka, and which are also known as Brahmā-loka, the Brahmā world. Traditionally, Brahmā-loka is subdivided in various planes corresponding to various stages of mastery of the four jhānas. The life-span of the Brahmās is specified at AN 4.123. As all other beings, brahmas are subject to the round of rebirth, old age and death. Some of them are brave protectors of the Buddha's teaching, while others are still deluded and conceited. Mahābrahmā is sometimes depicted as wrongly believing he is the creator of the universe.


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brahmacariya: [brahmā+cariya] brahmic life, life of renunciation, pure life of the bhikkhus, or any disciple having undertaken complete celibacy. More generally, it is an upright life, in which morality plays a fundamental role, a life of renunciation to kāma and of practice of meditation, leading among other things to the mastery of the jhānas. It is so called because it is the only way to reach the Brahmā world.


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brahmakāyika: [brahmā+kāya+ka] those who are the company of Brahmā. It designates the three lower realms of rūpa-loka, which are associated with the first jhāna. Their higest rulers is known as Mahābrahmā, of whom it is said, in DN 1, that he believes to be the highest of all living beings, an omniscient and omnipotent creator (in that way very similar to the christian god).


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Brahmavihāra: [Brahmā+vihāra] dwellings of Brahmā. They consist of the development of mettā, karuṇa, muditā, upekkhā, and pervading the entire universe with a mind embued with these qualities. The term seems to be of late origin, used to oppose bramanic theories and arguments, and does not appear in older texts where the cultivation of these four is described. The pratice of the brahma-vihāras is thus described at AN 3.66 without being so called.


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Buddha: awakened, the awekened one. It is the first of the tiratana and the tisaraṇa.


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Buddhānussati: [buddha+anussati] recollection of the Buddha. It is defined by the Buddha at AN 6.10. The formula is analyzed there.


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Buddhe aveccappasāda: [Buddha-avecca+pasāda] confidence in the Buddha which is confirmed by experience; verified/ confirmed confidence in the Buddha (Thanissaro B./B. Bodhi), perfect faith in the Buddha (R. Davis) - lit: 'definitely joyful on account of the Buddha'. It is one of the four sot·āpattiy·aṅgas.


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byāpāda: ill-will, malevolence. At AN 3.67, byāpāda is explained as having dosa for synonym. It falls in two categories:

1) it is one of the three mental akusala·kamma·pathas, being defined as such by the Buddha at AN 10.176.

2) it is one of the ten saṃyojanas.

♦ At SN 46.51, it is said that ayoniso manasikāra applied to a paṭigha·nimitta is the cause for the arising and multiplication of byāpāda, while yoniso manasikāra applied to mettā·cetovimutti constitutes its antidote (see here).


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C
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y

cāga
cāgānussati
cakkhu
cakkhundriya
caraṇa
cātummahārājika
cetanā
cetovimutti
chanda
citta
cittānupassanā
cīvara



cāga: generosity, liberality. The Buddha defines this term at AN 8.54.


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cāgānussati: [cāga+anussati] recollection of one's own generosity. It is defined by the Buddha at AN 6.10.


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cakkhu: eye. It is one of the twelve āyatanas.


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cakkhundriya: [cakkhu+indriya] faculty of sight/vision, faculty of the eye, organ of the eye. It is one of the six sensory indriyas.


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caraṇa: good conduct/ behavior.


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cātummahārājika: [catu+mahārāja-ka] class of devas, lit: 'of the four great kings', whose name is derived from the four kings, each dwelling at and protecting one quarter. They live in the first of the six deva-lokas pertaining to kāma-bhava, and thus rank as the lowest devas, below those of Tāvatimsa. They are described as taking interest in the righteousness and virtue of men at AN 3.37. Men offering dāna on the basis of greed are stated at AN 7.52 to be reborn among the cātummahārājikas. At AN 3.71 it is said that the length of a day and night in this plane of existence is equivalent to 50 human years and that the average lifespan of these devas is of one thousand such years, which equals altgether 36.5 million human years.


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cetanā: intention, volition.

1) it is one of the five constituents of nāma.

2) it is also described by the Buddha as the working principle of kamma at AN 6.63.


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cetovimutti: [citta+vimutti] liberation/emancipation of the mind, often refering to the attainment of jhānas. It is described at AN 2.32 as bringing about the fading away of rāga (taken as including as well dosa), and being attained through the practice of samatha (see the upekkhā of the fourth jhāna). This type of ceto·vimutti is sometimes described as 'sāmayika ceto·vimutti', and is contrasted with 'akuppa ceto·vimutti' or 'an-āsava ceto·vimutti paññā·vimutti', both of which refer to arahatta. Four further types of ceto·vimutti are disussed and defined at MN 43 and SN 41.7: 'appamāṇā ceto·vimutti' (which is a collective designation for another four types of ceto·vimutti, qv.), 'ākiñcaññā ceto·vimutti', 'suññatā ceto·vimutti', and 'a-nimittā ceto·vimutti'.


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chanda:

1. (negative sense:) impulse, excitement, intention, resolution, will desire for, wish for, delight in. Almost a synonym for kāma, with which it is sometimes combined as kāma-chanda, which is an enlarged term for kāma.

2. (positive sense:) zeal.


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citta: mind. It is nearly synonymous with mana and viññāṇa, but not quite. It rather refers to the mind in its subjectivity, as the theater of personnal experience where arise the three akusala·mūlas, and as what needs to be trained, unified, stilled and eventually liberated (see: adhi·citta·sikkhā and cittānupassanā).


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cittānupassanā: [citta+anupassanā] observation of the mind. It is one of the four satipaṭṭhānas. A broad definition is given at SN 47.40 and more detailed one in the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta: it consists of awareness regarding whether or not the mind is affected by rāga, dosa, moha , or if it is saṅkhitta, mahaggata, sa-uttara, samāhita, or vimutta.
Derivative: cittānupassī.


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cīvara: robe of a bhikkhu. It is one of the four paccayas, requisites of a bhikkhu's life.


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D
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y

dāna
dassana
deva, devatā
devatānussati
dhamma
dhammacakkhu
dhammādāsa
dhammānudhammappaṭipatti
dhammānupassanā
dhammānusārī
dhammānussati
dhammavicaya
Dhamma-Vinaya
Dhamme aveccappasāda
dhātu
diṭṭhe(va) dhamme
diṭṭhi
diṭṭhinijjhānakkhanti
diṭṭhisampanna
diṭṭhupādāna
domanassa
domanassindriya
duccarita
duggati
dukkaṭa
dukkha
dukkhasamudaya
dukkhanirodha
dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā
dukkhavedanā
dukkhindriya
dutiya



dāna: act of giving, gift, donation; almsgiving, charity, liberality.


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dassana: seeing, sight, vision.


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deva, devatā: beings having generally a happy existence in a celestial plane. They are usually invisible to untrained human beings. As all other beings, they are subject to anicca, jarā and maraṇa. After death, they can be reborn in decrease as a human being or even as unhappy beings living in a duggati.

Three kinds of devas can be distinguished: those who are in kāma-loka, still primarily motived by kāma-rāga: cātummahārājika, Tāvatimsa, Yāma, tusita, Nimmānaratī and paranimmitavasavattī devas; secondly those who are in the part of Brahmā-loka which is called rūpa-loka, who are composed of fine matter, who have (at least temporarily) transcended kāma, and are also referred to as brahmas or (for the lowest of them) Brahmakāyikas; thirdly those brahmas who live in a-rūpa-loka, totally disconnected from matter. The life-span of the six types of devas in kāma-loka is detailed at AN 3.71. The life-span of the brahmas is given at AN 4.123.


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devatānussati: [devatā+anussati] recollection of the devas. It is defined by the Buddha at AN 6.10.


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dhamma: several aspects of the word may be distinguished:

1) in its most general sense, it designates all the phenomena of the universe, including Nibbāna. It could be in this context be translated as 'thing' or 'phenomenon'.

2) mental phenomenon, mental state, mental content.

3) teaching - whether of the Buddha or of some other teacher.

4) nature or quality or property or characteristic of a phenomenon. In compounds, it may mean: 'having the nature of--' or 'being by nature subject to--', ex: vipariṇāma·dhamma

5) the law of Nature, the liberating law taught by the Buddha.
It is also the second of the tiratana and the tisaraṇa.


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dhammacakkhu: [dhamma+cakkhu] the eye of dhamma. An expression for the realization of sotāpatti.


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dhammādāsa: [dhamma+ādāsa] the mirror of the dhamma. Specific teaching given by the Buddha by which everyone can determine whether or not he is a sotāpanna. This exposition iss found at DN 16: it consists of the acknowledgement in oneself of

1. Buddhe aveccappasāda
2. Dhamme aveccappasāda
3. Saṅghe aveccappasāda
4. a sīla which is developed to perfection.


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dhammānudhammappaṭipatti: [dhammānudhamma+paṭipatti] practice of the dhamma in all its parts/ in its fullness; (B. Bodhi:) practice in accordance with the dhamma. It is one of the four sot·āpattiy·aṅgas.


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dhammānupassanā: [dhamma+anupassanā] observation of mental phenomena. It is one of the four satipaṭṭhānas. A broad definition is given at SN 47.40 and a more detailed one in the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta. It consists of:

1. the awareness regarding whether or not the mind is affected by the five nīvaraṇas

2. observation of the arising and passing away of the five upādāna·kkhandhas

3. observation of the arising of the saṃyojanas in the twelve āyatanas

4. observation of the arising of the bojjhaṅgas

5. observation of the four ariya·saccas.


Derivative: dhammānupassī.


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dhammānusārī: [dhamma+anusārī] Dhamma-follower, one relying on discernment. A definition is given at MN 70. Other definitions are given in each of the suttas of the Okkanti Saṃyutta (SN 25), in terms of degrees of acceptation after pondering with a modicum of discernment about the reality of anicca in various dhammas: the twelve āyatanas, the five khandhas, the six types of phassa etc.

♦ In all these suttas, it is further said of dhammānusārīs: "abhabbo ca tāva kālaṃ kātuṃ yāva na sotāpattiphalaṃ sacchikaroti" ("it is impossible for such a person to die without experiencing the fruit of sotāpatti"), and equivalent statements are made in the conclusions to MN 22 and MN 34.


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dhammānussati: [dhamma+anussati] recollection of the Dhamma. It is defined by the Buddha at AN 6.10. The formula is analyzed there.


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dhammavicaya: [dhamma+vicaya] investigation of mental phenomena/ of the dhamma. Here dhamma may be taken as meaning the teaching of the Buddha, the law of nature or mental phenomena, and thus there is investigation both of the teaching and of the mental states it describes. It is one of the seven bojjhaṅgas.


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Dhamma-Vinaya: [dhamma+vinaya] Teaching & Discipline expounded by the Buddha.


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Dhamme aveccappasāda: [dhamma+avecca+pasāda] confidence in the dhamma which is confirmed by experience; verified/ confirmed confidence in the dhamma (Thanissaro B./B. Bodhi), perfect faith in the dhamma (R. Davis) - lit: 'definitely joyful on account of the dhamma'. It is one of the four sot·āpattiy·aṅgas.

dhātu:

1) a primary element, of which the usual set comprises the four paṭhavī, āpo, tejo, vāyo (earth water, fire, wind), otherwise termed cattāro mahābhūtā(ni). MN 140 is a detailed exposition on the matter.

2) natural condition, property, disposition

3) factor, item

4) principle


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diṭṭhe(va) dhamme: [diṭṭha+dhamma] lit: in visible phenomena, i.e. in this world, in the present existence, in the visible world (ThanB: here and now). Contrasted with samparāyika (belonging to a future state, to another world).


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diṭṭhi: view, speculative opinion, belief, credo, dogma, doctrine. Generally designates a wrong view. Sammādiṭṭhi is the first constituent of the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga, and consists in considering the four ariya·saccas. When the prefix sammā· is absent, the word diṭṭhi generally designates a wrong view. The Buddha exhaustively expounds the 62 wrong views in the Brahmajāla Sutta. Diṭṭhis are one of the seven anusayas. See also sammādiṭṭhi.


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diṭṭhinijjhānakkhanti: [diṭṭhi+nijjhāna+khanti]

acceptance of a view after meditating on it. See the analysis provided in footnote 8 here.

diṭṭhinijjhānakkhanti appears often in two sets of either erroneous or uncertain grounds for accepting a teaching or a view:

♦ In conjunction with anussava, paramparā (what has been transmitted [by a tradition]), itikira (general consensus), piṭakasampadāna (what has been handed down in a collection of texts), takkahetu (the basis of logical reasoning), nayahetu (the basis of inference), ākāraparivitakka (deep reflection), bhabbarūpatā (what seems probable), and "samaṇo no garū"ti ([the thought:] 'The samaṇa is our revered teacher'). See AN 3.66; AN 3.67 and AN 4.193.

♦ In conjunction with saddhā, ruci (liking), anussava, and ākāraparivitakka (deep reflection). At SN 35.153, these five are contrasted with "having seen phenomenas with discernment" (dhammā paññāya disvā). At SN 12.68 they are contrasted with "I know, I see" (jānāmi, passāmi). At MN 95, they are presented as five improper grounds to draw a definite conclusion (ekaṃsena niṭṭhaṃ gacchati).


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diṭṭhisampanna: [diṭṭhi+sampanna] one accomplished in view.


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diṭṭhupādāna: [diṭṭhi+upādāna] clinging to views. It is one of the four upādānas.


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domanassa: [do+manas] mental unpleasantness, grief, affliction, gloom.


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domanassindriya: [domanassa+indriya] faculty of mental unpleasantness. It is defined at SN 48.38 as any mental unpleasantness. It is one of the five sensitive indriyas.


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dosa: aversion, anger, hatred. At AN 3.67, dosa is explained as having byāpāda for synonym. It is one of the three akusala·mūlas.


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duccarita: [du+carita] bad conduct, misbehavior, erroneous action, wrong conduct, evil behavior. It is divided in three types:

1. kāya-duccarita
2. vacī-duccarita
3. mana-duccarita

See also akusala·kamma·patha.


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duggati: [du+gati] painful condition, painful way, painful state. Antonym of sugati. Synonym of vinipāta and apāya, with which duggati is very often associated. There are four of them: birth as an asura, in pettivisaya, in tiracchāna·yoni and in niraya. Beings are lead to such states of existence by adopting the ten akusala kamma·pathas: see AN 10.176.


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dukkaṭa: [du+kata] wrong-doing. Class of offenses to the Vinaya which are relatively minor and are rsolved by a simple confession.


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dukkha: unsatisfactoriness, unpleasantness, suffering, pain, misery, discomfort. No English word can alone convey properly the full range of meanings. It appears in various contexts:

1) as dukkha ariya·sacca, in which context dukkha refers to the insatisfying and unsecure nature of all conditioned phenomena (saṅkhāras) which, because of their nature of anicca, result in dukkha for whoever gets attached to them. Note that here dukkha includes also sukhavedanā and somanassa. Dukkha ariya·sacca is expounded by the Buddha in the Dhamma·cakka·ppavattana Sutta. In this connection, the brahmacariya lived by the bhikkhus is often described as aiming to the full understanding of dukkha, since the full understanding of the ariya·saccas brings about liberation.

2) as dukkha·vedanā in the context of sensations: pain, unpleasant sensation, bodily unpleasantness.

3) as one of the ti·lakkhaṇa.

♦ At AN 4.49, seeing as sukha something which is actually dukkha constitutes one of four saññā·vipallāsa (distortions of perception), citta·vipallāsa (perversions of the mind), diṭṭhi·vipallāsa (inversions of views), the other three being the corresponding misunderstanding of aniccā, anatta and asubha.


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dukkhasamudaya: [dukkha+samudaya] arising of suffering origin of suffering. It is the second ariya·sacca, expounded by the Buddha in the Dhamma·cakka·ppavattana Sutta.


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dukkhasaññā: [dukkha+saññā]

perception of suffering.


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dukkhanirodha: [dukkha+nirodha] cessation of suffering. It is the third ariya·sacca and is expounded by the Buddha in the Dhamma·cakka·ppavattana Sutta.


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dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā:
[dukkha·nirodha+gāminī+paṭipadā] path leading to the cessation of suffering. It is the fourth ariya·sacca and is expounded by the Buddha in the Dhamma·cakka·ppavattana Sutta. It is identical with the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga:

1. sammā·diṭṭhi
2. sammā·saṅkappo
3. sammā·vācā
4. sammā·kammanta
5. sammā·ājīva
6. sammā·vāyāma
7. sammā·sati
8. sammā·samādhi


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dukkhavedanā: unplesant feeling/sensation, pain [dukkha+vedanā]. It is one of the three (main) types of vedanās.


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dukkhindriya: [dukkha+indriya] faculty of pain/discomfort. It is defined at SN 48.38 as any bodily unpleasantness. It is one of the five sensitive indriyas.


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dutiya: second.


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E
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y

eka
ekagga
ekaggatā
ekatta
ekāyana magga
evaṃ me sutaṃ



eka: one.


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ekagga: [eka] (regarding the mind:) unified, concentrated on its object, having calmed down all tendencies to grasp multiple objects (thoughts, memories etc.).


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ekaggatā: [ekagga+-ta] unification/ tranquillity of the mind, state of having an unified mind entirely concentrated on its object, having calmed down all tendencies to grasp multiple objects (thoughts, memories etc.). Appears often in the expression 'cittassa ekaggatā': unification/ tranquillity of the mind.


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ekatta: [eka+-tta] lit: 'state of being one'.

1) unity.

2) solitude.

3) agreement.


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ekāyana magga: [eka+ayana magga] the path leading towards one destination only, the direct path, path leading to one goal (PTSD). See detailed article.


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evaṃ me sutaṃ: [evaṃ - me - sutaṃ] thus have I heard - lit: 'thus was heard by me'. According to the tradition, during the first council, during the few months following the demise of the Buddha, Ānanda recited word for word all the discourses of the Buddha he had heard thanks to his stupendous memory. He repeated these three words before reciting each sutta.


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G
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y



gati: destination. They are explained at MN 12 as fivefold: niraya, tiracchāna·yoni, pettivisaya, the human world and devas.


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ghāṇa: nose. It is one of the twelve āyatanas.


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ghāṇindriya: [ghāṇa+indriya] faculty of smelling, sense of smell, faculty of the nose, organ of the nose. It is one of the six sensory indriyas.


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H
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y



hetu: cause, reason, motive, origin. Almost a synonym of paccaya, appearing often in conjunction with it in the expression: 'ko hetu, ko paccayo...': 'what is the cause, what is the reason...'.


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hiri (and hirī): conscientiousness (moral scruple), sense of shame, bashfulness. To be undestood as a particular conscientiousness that arises through association with ariyas or extensively well-behaved people, and the desire to be worthy of that association by matching their high standard of good conduct. Often contrasted to and combined with ottappa. See detailed article.


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I
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y

iddhi
iddhipāda
indriya
indriyesu guttadvāratā
iriyāpatha



iddhi: potency

1) psychic/ supernormal power

2) spiritual power

3) success.


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iddhipāda: [iddhi+pāda] basis for potencies. Iddhipādas lead to the matery of iddhis. The latter become accessible to meditators by the practice of samādhi beyond the fourth jhāna. There are four iddhipādā:

1. chanda·samādhi·ppadhāna·saṅkhāra·samannāgata iddhi·pāda
2. vīriya·samādhi·ppadhāna·saṅkhāra·samannāgata iddhi·pāda
3. citta·samādhi·ppadhāna·saṅkhāra·samannāgata iddhi·pāda
4. vīmaṃsā·samādhi·ppadhāna·saṅkhāra·samannāgata iddhi·pāda


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indriya: faculty, controlling principle, directive force. They are so called because they exercise power over particular fields of phenomena, as Indra (from whom they acquire their name) exercises power over the devas. The term appears in different sets:

1) the five spiritual powers:

1. saddhā
2. vīriya
3. sati
4. samādhi
5. paññā

2) the six sense faculties: cakkhundriya, sotindriya, ghāṇindriya, jivhindriya, kāyindriya and manindriya.

3) the five sensitive faculties, which are listed at SN 48.38: sukhindriya, dukkhindriya, somanassindriya, domanassindriya and upekkh·indriya.


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indriyasaṃvara: [indriya+saṃvara]
sense restraint. See next entry.


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indriyesu guttadvāratā: [indriya gutta+dvāra] state of guarding the doors of the sense faculties. It is identical with saṃvara. This practice is described in stock formulae which are analyzed in detail here.


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iriyāpatha: postures of the body. They are numbered as four: walking, standing, sitting and lying down.


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J
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y

jāgariyaṃ anuyoga
jarā
jarāmaraṇa
jāti
jhāna
jīva
jivhā
jivhindriya



jāgariyaṃ anuyoga: [jāgariyā anuyoga] dedication to wakefulness. This practice is described in a stock formula which is analyzed in detail here. Derivative: jāgariyaṃ anuyutta.


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jarā: old age.


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jarāmaraṇa: [jarā+maraṇa] old age and death. It is the twelfth and last link of paṭicca·samuppāda, conditioned by jāti. Jarā-maraṇa is defined by the Buddha at SN 12.2.


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jāti: birth, i.e. the entire process from conception to parturition. Jāti is defined by the Buddha at SN 12.2. For some beings, the birth is not immediate and requires a maturation in the mother's body, as it is the case for humans and animals; for some other beings, the birth is immediate: those are called opapātiko.

Jāti is the eleventh link of paṭicca·samuppāda, conditioned by bhava and giving rise to jarā-maraṇa.


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jhāna: absorption of concentration in meditation. Refers to specific mental states attained by the development of samatha and samādhi during the practice of meditation. The formulae describing the jhānas are accessible here and there. sammā·samādhi is defined as consisting of the development of the first four jhānas: see the definition at SN 45.8.

The fourth jhāna is described as the basis for the attainment of iddhis, and the six abhiññās as stated for example at AN 3.102.

There are also four higher jhānas, attained by the continuation of practice beyond the fourth jhāna, which are described at SN 54.8. Sometimes, the cessation of saññā and vedanā i.e. the attainment of Nibbāna is described as a ninth jhāna, as it is the case at AN 9.41.

The development of jhānas requires the suppression of the five nīvaraṇa, and the culture of viveka. At SN 54.8, the Buddha recommands ānāpānassati as a way to develop the jhānas. They are the main element making the brahmacariya agreeable and easeful.


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jīva: life, vital principle, individual soul.


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jivhā: tongue. It is one of the twelve āyatanas.


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jivhindriya: [jivhā+indriya] faculty of tasting, sense of taste, faculty of the tongue, organ of the tongue. It is one of the six sensory indriyas.


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K
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y

kabaḷīkāra
kalyāṇa
kalyāṇamittatā
kāma
kāmabhava
kāma·cchanda
kāmaguṇa
kāmaloka
kāmarāga
kāmataṇhā
kāmesumicchācāra
kāmesumicchācāra veramaṇī
kamma
kāmupādāna
kappa
karuṇā
kaṭhina
kāya
kāyagatāsati
kāyānupassanā
kāyindriya
khandha
khanti
khattiya
khīṇāsava
kilesa
kusala
kusalakammapatha
kusalamūla



kabaḷīkāra: edible food. It is one of the four āhāras. The Buddha describes how the nutriment of food should be considered at SN 12.63.


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kalyāṇa: fortunate, happy, advantageous, beautiful, pleasant, good, virtuous. Almost a synonym of kusala.


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kalyāṇamittatā: [kalyāṇa+mittatā] favorable friendship.


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kāma: sensuality, sensual desire, sensual pleasure and all that goes along with it. Two main meanings can be distinguished:

1) sensual pleasure, often described as pertaining to the five kāma·guṇas.

2) sensual desire, characterized by saṅkappa-rāga. As such, it is one of the five nīvaraṇas (termed kāma·cchanda) and one of the greatest obstacles to the brahmacariya.

At AN 6.63 the Buddha declares that actual sensuality is no to be found in external objects but in the mind, and the tue meaning of the term thus corresponds to the definition 2).

kāma holds a chief position in all the list of mental phenomena obstructing the development: nīvaraṇas, upādānas, āsava, saṃyojanas, anusayas, oghas.


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kāmabhava: [kāma+bhava] existence/ becoming in the realm of sense desire (kāmaloka), which is taken as meaning the six lower deva-lokas (cātummahārājika, Tāvatimsa, Yāma, tusita, Nimmānaratī and paranimmitavasavattī), together with the human plane and the four duggatis (asura, pettivisaya, tiracchāna·yoni and niraya). Kāma-bhava is one of the three types of bhava.


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kāmacchanda: [kāma+chanda] sense desire - stands as an enlarged form of kāma. Almost synonym with kāma·rāga.

♦ It sometimes appears in the list of the five nīvaraṇas instead of abhijjhā, notably in the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta.

♦ It is one of the five saṃyojanas which are totally eradicated by an anāgāmī.

♦ At SN 46.51, it is said that ayoniso manasikāra applied to a subha·nimitta is the cause for the arising and multiplication of kāma·cchanda, while yoniso manasikāra applied to an asubhanimitta constitutes its antidote (see here).


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kāmaguṇa: [kāma+guṇa] cords of sensual pleasures. Always described as fivefold, they are defined by the Buddha at MN 59.


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kāmaloka: [kāma+loka] planes of sense desire. Designates altogether the four vinipātas (asura, pettivisaya, tiracchāna·yoni and niraya), the human world, and the six inferior deva-lokas (cātummahārājika, Tāvatimsa, Yāma, tusita, Nimmānaratī and paranimmitavasavattī), where beings are primarily motivated by kāma.


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kāmarāga: [kāma+rāga] sensual passion, strong avidity for sensual pleasures. Almost synonym with kāma·cchanda. It is one of the seven anusayas.


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kāmataṇhā: [kāma+taṇhā] desire for sensual pleasures. It is one of the three types of taṇhā.


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kāmesumicchācāra: [kāma+micchā+cāra] misconduct in sensual pleasures. It is one of the three bodily akusala·kamma·pathas. kāmesu·micchā·cāra is defined by the Buddha at AN 10.176. Its unpleasant consequences are described at AN 8.40.


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kāmesumicchācāra veramaṇī: [kāmesu·micchā·cāra+veramaṇī] abstention from misconduct in sensual pleasures. It is the third of the pañcasīla.


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kamma: action, deed, work, intentional act which conditions future destiny and rebirths (aka. sankrit: karma).

At AN 6.63, the Buddha identifies kamma with cetanā. At AN 5.57, the Buddha declares everyone should frequently think about kamma and remember he is nothing but the product of his past actions. Kamma is also analysed in different ways:

1) as twofold:

1. kusala-kamma
2. akusala-kamma
i.e. bearing pleasant or unpleasant results. See: kusala·kamma·patha and akusala·kamma·patha.

2) as threefold: partaining to

1. kāya
2. vacā
3. mana
See AN 6.63.

3) in terms of vipāka it is also threefold:

1. arising in this life
2. in the next life
3. in subsquent future lives
See AN 6.63.

4) its diversity is fivefold:

1. niraya-vedanīyaṃ
2. tiracchāna·yoni-vedanīyaṃ
3. pettivisaya--vedanīyaṃ
4. manussa-loka-vedanīyaṃ
5. deva-loka-vedanīyaṃ
See AN 6.63.

5) as sixfold: arising on account of:

1. lobha
2. dosa
3. moha
4. alobha
5. adosa
6. amoha
See AN 3.112.


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kāmupādāna: [kāma+upādāna] clinging to sensual pleasures. It is one of the four upādānas.


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kappa: aeon, world cycle. An unconceivably long period of time. At SN 15.5, the Buddha explains that by rubbing a mountain every hundred years with a silky cloth, the mountain would be sooner eroded than the kappa would come to its end.


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kasiṇa:

1) (adj:) entire, whole

2) (n:) particular type of meditation object (each of the four elements, four colors, space and consciousness), to be attended to undividedly.


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karuṇā: compassion, pity, mercy, i.e. empathy for those who are afflicted by suffering. It is one of the four brahmavihāras. The practice of karuṇā as a brahmavihāra is described at AN 3.66.


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kaṭhina: ceremony held at the end of the vassa. See detailed article.


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kāya:

1) collection

2) multitude

3) body. As a cognitive organ, it is one of the twelve āyatanas.


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kāyagatāsati: [kaya+gata+sati] mindfulness directed to the body. Kāyagatāsati is defined in detail by the Buddha at MN 119 and is almost equated to kāyānupassanā, the first of the four satipaṭṭhānas.


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kāyānupassanā: [kāya+anupassanā] observation of body. It is one of the four satipaṭṭhānas. A broad definition is given at SN 47.40 and more detailed one in the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta: it consists of

1. developpement of ānāpānassati
2. of mindfulness of the four iriyāpathas
3. of sampajañña at all times
4. of paṭikūla-manasikāra
5. of dhātu-manasikāra
6. of observation of sivathikas.

Derivative: kāyānupassī.


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kāyindriya: [kāya+indriya] faculty of proprioception, sense of proprioception, faculty of the body as a sense organ. It is one of the six sensory indriyas.


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khandha:

1) general meaning: a mass, a heap, a collection of, 'all that constitutes/ is comprised under...' (ex: dukkha-khandha: all that constitutes dukkha).

2) specific meaning: used as the concise way to designate the five aggregates of attachment, which are generally called upādāna·kkhandhas.

Here a being is viewed as the collection of five aggregates of phenomena, to which untrained beings are deeply attached out of ignorance, considering them - without discerning them - as constituents of their attā, which is described as the ultimate nature ofdukkha by the formula 'saṃkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā': see for example SN 56.11.

These five are:

1. rūpa
2. vedanā
3. Saññā
4. saṅkhāra
5. Viññāṇa

They are defined at SN 22.79. It is stated at MN 43 that vedanā, Saññā and Viññāṇaare deeply associated and that it is impossible to clearly separate one from another to show their difference.


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khanti: patience, forbearance, tolerance.


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khattiya: aristocrats.


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khīṇāsava: [khīṇa+āsava] designation for an arahant - lit: one in whom the impurities of the mind have been destroyed.


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kilesa: corruptions/ defilements of the mind. There is no explicit definition given in the suttas, although the term appears quite often. But there are definitions of the term upakkilesa.


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kusala: characterizes all which has pleasant and happy results: advantageous, meritorious, skilful, virtuous, morally good, good, right, prosperous, salutary, skilful. Especially used in its moral sense.

The Commentary defines the term as having three meanings:
1. (psychologically, spiritually) healthy
2. blameless
3. productive of pleasant and favourable results.

Kusala can also be defined as what arises on the basis of the three kusala·mūlas. In terms of action, ten main kusala actions are listed and called together kusala·kamma·pathas.


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kusalakammapatha: [kusala+kamma+patha] paths of advantageous/ meritorious action. There are ten kusala-kamma·pathas, classified under bodily, verbal and mental. They are thus described by the Buddha at AN 10.176.

The three bodily kusala-kamma·pathas are:

1. abstaining from pāṇātipāta
2. from adinnādāna
3. from kāmesu·micchā·cāra

The four verbal kusala-kamma·pathas are:

4. abstaining from musā·vāda
5. from pisuṇa·vācā
6. from pharusa·vāca
7. from samphappalāpa

The three mental kusala-kamma·pathas are:

8. abstaining from abhijjha
9. from byāpāda
10. from micchā·diṭṭhi

These ten kusala-kamma·pathas correspond to sammā·saṅkappa, sammā·vācā and sammā·kammanta, since nekkhamma consists mainly in abandoning craving.


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kusalamūla: [kusala+mūla] roots/ sources of what is advantageous. The term is defined by Sāriputta at MN 9 as consisting of

1. alobha
2. adosa
3. amoha


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L
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y



lābhasakkārasiloka: [lābha+sakkāra+siloka]

honors, gain and fame. One of the greatest dangers for a bhikkhu, so much so that lābha·sakkāra·siloka has its own Saṃyutta (n°17).


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lobha: craving, desire, greed, covetousness. It is one of the three akusala·mūla. At AN 3.67, lobha is explained as having abhijjhā for synonym. It can also be considered as nearly synonym with rāga and taṇhā.


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loka: world, universe, plane of existence.


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M
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y

magga
mahiccha
mahicchatā
majjhimā patipadā
makkha
mana
māna
manas
manasikāra
maṅgala
manindriya
manosañcetanā
manussa
Māra
maraṇa
maraṇasaññā
maraṇassati
mettā
micchādiṭṭhi
micchāpaṭipadā
mitta
moha
muditā
mūla
musāvāda
musāvāda veramaṇī



magga: path, way, road.

1) Appears especially in the formula ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga which designates the fourth ariya·sacca: dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā.

2) Designates also the four steps of the path leading to Nibbāna:

1. sotāpatti
2. sakadāgāmitā
3. anāgāmitā
4. arahatta


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mahiccha: [mahā+iccha]

1) having many desires, not easily satisfied, discontented

2) pretentious, not modest, self-aggrandizing.

The word is explained at AN 6.84 as being annoyed and not contented (vighātavā, asantuṭṭha) with the four paccayas, requisites of a bhikkhu's life.


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mahicchatā: [mahā+iccha+] greediness, desire, insatisfaction, fact of having many desires. Antonym of appicchatā. At AN 1.62, mahicchatā is presented as the ground for the arising of akusala dhammas.


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majjhimā patipadā: [majjhimā patipadā] middle way - consists in avoid the two extremes which are indulgence in sensual pleasures and mortification. It is an alternative appellation for the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga. The majjhimā-patipadā is expounded by the Buddha in the Dhamma·cakka·ppavattana Sutta.


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mana: mind. It is nearly synonymous with citta and viññāṇa, but not quite. It rather refers to the mind as a cognitive organ, one of the twelve āyatanas. It is also one of the three 'doors of action': see kamma 2).


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māna: pride, conceit, arrogance. A typical occurence of māna is the propensity to compare oneself with others.

1) it is one of the ten saṃyojanas which disappear only with arahatta.

2) it is one of the seven anusayas.


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manas: mind. See mana.


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manasikāra: [manas+kāra] attention, reflection, consideration, ideation, (mental) examination.

1) It is stated in MN 9 to be one of the five constituents of nāma.

2) It is often used as (a-)yoniso manasikāra. Yoniso-manasikāra is one of the four sot·āpattiy·aṅgas.


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maṅgala: auspicious prosperous, lucky, festive.


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manindriya: [mana+indriya] faculty of the mind, organ of the mind. It is one of the six sensory indriyas.


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manosañcetanā: [mana+sañcetanā] intention. It is one of the four āhāras. The Buddha describes how manosañcetanā as āhāra should be considered at SN 12.63.


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manussa: human being.


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Māra: litt: the killer. Described as a tempter, he is the opponent of liberation. He is sometimes considered as one (living) being, sometimes as a class of beings. He appears in the suttas both as a deva - of whom the tradition says he is the ruler of the paranimmitavasavattī devas - and as a personnification of evil and passions, ruling over the totality of wordly phenomena.

These two descriptions can however be understood as one and the same insofar as he would be the foremost of the devas who control the creations of others (that is their mental constructions).


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maraṇa: death. For a precise definition, see SN 12.2.


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maraṇasaññā: [maraṇa+saññā]

perception of death. Probably a synonym for maraṇa·ssati, which is defined precisely at AN 6.20 and AN 8.74.

♦ According to AN 7.49, when one often applies his/her mind to this practice, he/she is automatically repulsed by jīvita·nikanti (desire for life).

Maraṇa·saññā is described at AN 4.163 as participating of a painful mode of practice (dukkhā paṭipadā).

♦ The seven bojjhaṅgas can be developed in conjunction with maraṇa·saññā (SN 46.73).

Maraṇa·saññā appears almost always in a list, generally with asubha·saññā, āhāre paṭikūla·saññā, and sabba·loke an·abhirata·saññā. They are often collectively recommended for the sake of understanding or removing rāga (e.g. AN 5.303).

♦ Other perceptions usually associated with maraṇa·saññā include anicca·saññā, anicce dukkha·saññā, anatta·saññā, ādīnava·saññā, pahāna·saññā, virāga·saññā and nirodha·saññā.


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maraṇassati: [maraṇa+sati]

mindfulness of death. Probably a synonym for maraṇa·saññā. This practice is explained at AN 6.20 and AN 8.74.


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mettā: loving kindness, friendliness, amity, sympathy, good will consisting of wishing happiness for others. It is one of the four brahmavihāras. The practice of mettā as a brahmavihāra is described at AN 3.66.


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micchādiṭṭhi: [micchā-diṭṭhi] wrong view. It is one of the three mental akusala·kamma·pathas. An intensified form of micchā·diṭṭhi is defined by the Buddha at AN 10.176.


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micchāpaṭipadā: [micchā+paṭipadā] wrong path/ way. Antonym of sammāpaṭipadā.


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mitta: friend.


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moha: delusion, ignorance, confusion, bewilderment. At AN 3.67, moha is explained as having avijjā for synonym. It is one of the three akusala·mūlas. Synonym of avijjā.


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muditā: altruistic or sympathetic joy, consisting of rejoicing at others' success and good fortune. It is one of the four brahmavihāras. The practice of muditā as a brahmavihāra is described at AN 3.66.


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mūla: there are four main meanings:

1) root.

2) foot, bottom, lowest part, base, foundation.

3) ground for, reason, cause, condition.

4) origin, source.
See particularly kusala·mūla and akusala·mūla.


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musāvāda: [musā+vāda] lie. It is one of the four verbal akusala·kamma·pathas. Musāvāda is defined by the Buddha at AN 10.176. Its unpleasant consequences are described at AN 8.40.


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musāvāda veramaṇī: [musāvāda veramaṇī] abstaining from lying. It is the fourth of the pañcasīla.


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N
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y

nāga
nāma
nāmarūpa
ñāṇa
ñāṇadassana
nekkhamma
nevasaññānāsaññāyatana
Nibbāna
nibbidā
nidāna
nimitta
nimmānaratī
nirāmisa
niraya
nirodha
nirodhasaññā
nissaraṇa
nīvaraṇa



nāga:

1) a snake, a cobra.

2) a dragon.

3) an elephant, specially as a symbol of strengh and endurance.

4) a chief, a noble person.


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nāma:

1) name

2) mind, mentality (in contrast with matter or materiality). Appears generally in the compound nāma-rūpa. Nāma generally refers to the four mental khandhas, i.e:

1. vedanā

2. Saññā

3. saṅkhāra
4. Viññāṇa
but it is also defined by the Buddha at SN 12.2 as constituted of:

1. vedanā

2. Saññā

3. cetanā

4. phassa
5. manasikāra


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nāmarūpa: [nāma+rūpa] name and form, mind and matter, mentality-materiality. Nāma generally corresponds to the four mental khandhas, while rūpa is the material khandha.

It is the fourth link of paṭicca·samuppāda, conditioned by viññāṇa and giving rise to saḷāyatana. In this context, nāma-rūpa is defined by the Buddha at SN 12.2.


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ñāṇa: knowledge, comprehension, intelligence, insight, recognition. It is a faculty of understanding which is included in paññā. The latter designates the spiritual wisdom which embraces the fundamental truths, whereas ñāṇa is relative to common experience. At DN 9, the Buddha states that Saññā is necessary to the forming of ñāṇa, and it precedes it.


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ñāṇadassana: knowledge and vision


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nekkhamma: renunciation of worliness, giving up the world, freedom from lust, craving and desires. Antonym of kāma. Nekkhamma-saṅkappa is one of the three sammā·saṅkappas.


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nevasaññānāsaññāyatana: [neva+saññā+na+a+saññā+āyatana] the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. Considered as the 8th jhāna. See the standard description here.


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Nibbāna: Extinction, Nibbāna, nirvana, state in which nothing arises nor passes away, and characterized by complete cessation of the three akusala·mūlas (at least temporarily).


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nibbidā: disenchantment, disgust, weariness, revulsion, aversion. This mental state is used as an antidote to the nīvaraṇa of kāma·cchanda and is cultivated through the observation of repulsive objects such as dead bodies in putrefaction. It is in particular a very powerful technique to overcome sexuality.


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nidāna:

1) (n:) source, origin, cause; reason.

2) (adj in cpds:) founded on--, caused by--, originating in--, relating to--


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nimitta: has many different meanings. Only the two most useful are expounded here:

1) outward/ general appearance (in the context of sense restraint formulae).

2) object of senses, of perception, of attention, of concentration, of meditation.


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nimmānaratī: [nimmāna+ratī] class of devas so called because they delight in their own creations. They live in the fifth of the six deva-lokas pertaining to kāma-bhava, ranking between those of tusita and those of Paranimmita-vasavattī.

At AN 3.71 it is said that the length of a day and night in this plane of existence is equivalent to 800 human years and that the average lifespan of these devas is of eight thousand such years, which equals altgether 2.336 billion human years.


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nirāmisa: unwordly, having no meat, without attachement, free from sensual desires, free from worldly taint, disinterested, non-material. Opposed to sāmisa.


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niraya: hell. It is one of the four duggatis. Beings are lead to such states of existence by adopting the ten akusala·kamma·pathas: see AN 10.176. Note that a life in hell is by no means eternal.


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nirodha: cessation. Used in many cases as a synonym of Nibānna.


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nirodhasaññā: [nirodha+saññā]

perception of cessation. This practice is explained at AN 10.60.

♦ According to AN 7.27, so long as the bhikkhus practice nirodha·saññā, only growth can be expected of them, not decline.


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nissaraṇa: departure, going out, exit, escape, salvation, emancipation, leaving behind, being freed (main meaning). Often cited together with ādīnava and assāda as characteristics to be understood regarding various dhammas: the five upādāna·kkhandhas, kāma, certain diṭṭhis etc. The nissaraṇa of a particular dhamma is generally described as the removal and abandonment of the chanda-rāga towards it. The nissaraṇas of kāma, rūpa and vedanā are explained in detail at MN 13. Five nissaraṇas are listed at AN 5.200.


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nīvaraṇa: hindrance. Refers to five mental states which hinder the practice of meditation, i.e. the insight and the ability of the mind to experience peace. They are always listed as five:

1. kāma·cchanda/abhijjha
2. byāpāda
3. thīna·middhā
4. uddhacca-kukkucca
5. vicikiccha

For example, these five mental states are listed and referred to as nīvaraṇas at AN 9.40 and it is clear in that sutta that their abandonment is a necessary condition to attain the first jhāna. They are also referred to as {hover mouse over following words:} 'cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe' - defilements of the mind that weaken insight. There is an interesting simile to explain these five at SN 46.55.


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O
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opanayika: conducive to, leading to (Nibānna). An epithet given to the dhamma in the stock formula which describes it.


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opapātika: taking birth spontaneously, i.e. without maturation in the mother's body. It is the case for brahmas, devas, asuras, petas and beings living in niraya. After death, opapātika being do not leave a dead body behind them. Their body disappears at the moment of their death.


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ottappa: cautiousness, prudence, scruple, moral qualm, fear of wrong doing, shrinking back form doing wrong. Often contrasted to and combined with hiri. See detailed article.


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P
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y

pabbajjā
paccaya
paccekabuddha
padakkhiṇa
padhāna
pahāna
pahānasaññā
pamāda
pāmojja
paṃsukūla
pāṇātipāta
pāṇātipāta veramaṇī
pañcasīla
paññā
paññāvimutti
paññāvimutto
pāpa
pāpaka
papañca
pārājika
paranimmitavasavattī
paribbājaka
parideva
parimukhaṃ
parinibbāna
passaddhi
paṭicca samuppāda
paṭigha
pātimokkha
paṭipada
paṭisallāna
paṭisaṅkhā
paviveka
peta
pettivisaya
pharusavāca
phassa
phoṭṭhabba
piṇḍapāta
pisuṇavācā
pīti
pītisukha
piyehi vippayoga dukkha
pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇa
pūjā
puñña
puthujjana



pabbajjā: going forth, taking up of the ascetic life, becoming a paribbājaka.


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paccaya: condition, resting on, falling back on, foundation cause, requisite, support.

1) it denotes the conditionality between two phenomena, the arising of the second being totally dependant on the arising of the first, chiefly in the paṭicca·samuppāda.

2) it designates the four requisites of a bhikkhu's life:

1. cīvara
2. piṇḍapāta
3. senāsana
4. bhesajja


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Paccekabuddha: lone Buddha, who does not teach.


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padakkhiṇa: mode of reverential salutation by walking round a person or object, keeping the right side turned to him.


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padhāna: effort. The fourfold definition of sammappadhāna given at AN 4.13 is exactly the same as the definition of sammā·vāyāma.


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pahāna: giving up, abandoning, abandonment, removal, getting rid of, avoidance, rejection.


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pahānasaññā: [pahāna+saññā]

perception of abandoning. This practice is explained at AN 10.60.

♦ According to AN 7.27, so long as the bhikkhus practice pahāna·saññā, only growth can be expected of them, not decline.


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pamāda: negligence, carelessness, heedlessness.


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pāmojja: serene joy.


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paṃsukūla: rags from a dust heap. Corresponds to one of the dhutaṅgas.


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pāṇātipāta: [pāṇa+atipāta] destruction of life. It is one of the three bodily akusala·kamma·pathas. Pāṇātipāta is defined by the Buddha at AN 10.176. Its unpleasant consequences are described at AN 8.40.


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pāṇātipāta veramaṇī: [pāṇātipāta+veramaṇī] abstaining from destroying life. It is the first and the most basic of the pañcasīla.


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pañcasīla: [pañca+sīla] five moral precepts that ought to be observed by everyone wishing for one's own welfare, namely:

1. pāṇātipāta veramaṇī
2. adinnādāna veramaṇī
3. kāmesu·micchā·cāra veramaṇī
4. musā-vāda veramaṇī
5. surā-meraya-majja-pamādaṭṭhāna veramaṇī

See: sīla. The unpleasant consequences of not observing these five precepts are described at AN 8.40.


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paññā: wisdom, insight, discernement, understanding. It encompasses two factors of the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga: sammā·saṅkappa and sammā·diṭṭhi. Paññā can be defined as consisting of the discernment and penetration of the ti·lakkhaṇa in all phenomena. It is one of the five spiritual indriyas and the five balas. Paññā as one of the five balas is defined at AN 5.14.


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paññāvimutti: [paññā+vimutti]

liberation/emancipation through wisdom/insight, which is defined at AN 2.32 as the fading away of avijjā and is attained through the practice of vipassanā.


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paññāvimutto: [paññā+vimutti] liberated/emancipated by wisdom/insight. Adjective derived from paññā·vimutti.


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pāpa: (adj:) bad, evil, wicked, sinful | evil, wrong doing, sin.


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pāpaka: bad, evil, wicked, sinful.


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papañca: mental proliferation, intellectualism, (excessive) mental fabrication, obsessive mental construction. This obstacle often takes the form of excessive mental acitivity and reflection over matters which do not deserve particular attention.


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pārājika: entailing expulsion. Designates the most serious type of offenses to the Vinaya, following which the offender is definitely excluded from the saṅgha and will not be allowed to become a bhikkhu again in his lifetime. There are four of them: sexual intercouse, stealing, murder and lie regarding the stage of spiritual realization attained by oneself.


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paranimmitavasavattī: [paranimmita+vasavattī] class of devas so called because they control the creations of others. They live in the sixth of the six deva-lokas pertaining to kāma-bhava, ranking between those of Nimmāna-ratī and the most inferior Brahmas. Māra is said to be their ruler.

At AN 3.71 it is said that the length of a day and night in this plane of existence is equivalent to 1600 human years and that the average lifespan of these devas is of sixteen thousand such years, which equals altgether 9.344 billion human years.


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paribbājaka: wandering ascetic/ spiritual mendicant.


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parideva: lamentation.


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parimukhaṃ: [pari+mukha] around the mouth, around the nostrils, around the entrance (by which the air gets into the body). This word is of foremost importance in understanding the instructions given by the Buddha regarding the practice of ānāpānassati. See detailed article.


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parinibbāna: full Nibbāna. It is a synonym for Nibbāna; this term, therefore, does not refer exclusively to the ceasing of the 5 upādāna·kkhandhas at the death of an arahant, although it is often applied to it.


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passaddhi: calm, tranquillity, serenity. It is one of the seven bojjhaṅgas.

♦ At SN 46.51, it is said that yoniso manasikāra applied to kāya·passaddhi and citta·passaddhi is the way to develop and multiply passaddhi as a bojjhaṅga.


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paṭicca samuppāda: [paṭicca+samuppāda] dependant origination, origination as a necessary result from an antecedent cause. This fundamental teaching of the Buddha shows how the most important phenomena of existence condition one another, in a chain of twelve links which is said to expound the origination of eveything that pertains to suffering. See a detailed exposition at SN 12.2. There is a full Saṃyutta dedicated to the subject in the Saṃyutta Nikāya.


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paṭigha:

1) ethically: repulsion, repugnance, anger, hatred. In this sense, it is a synonym for dosa.

2) psychologically: sensory reaction. The cessation of paṭigha-saññā is a requisite condition for entering the fifth jhāna. It is said to refer to the perceptions arising on account of contact at the level of sense organs.

♦ At SN 46.51, it is said that a paṭigha·nimitta accompanied by ayoniso manasikāra is the cause for the arising and multiplication of byāpāda, which is one of the five nīvaraṇas.


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pātimokkha: code of discipline applying to the bhikkhus. There were originally no rules for them, but the Buddha started laying down these rules when the necessity arose, due to the arrival in the community of individuals requiring such rules to restrain themselves properly. The number of rules eventually amounted to 227 for the bhikkhus and 311 for the bhikkhunis.


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paṭipada: means of reaching a goal or destination, path, way, method, mode of progress, line of conduct. Almost synonym with magga. See in particular majjhimā-patipadā.


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paṭisallāna: seclusion, solitude, retirement for the purpose of meditation, privacy.


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paṭisaṅkhā: reflection, judgement, consideration.


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paviveka: seclusion, isolation, solitude.


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peta: afflicted spirit, dead, departed, mane, hungry ghost, hungry shade. May refer to the ancesters or to beings living in a state of misery. Some of them are for example described in the Lakkhaṇa Saṃyutta as having the form of a skeleton or a lump of meat constantly attacked by birds of prey. The realm of petas is one of the four duggatis. Beings are lead to such states of existence by adopting the ten akusala·kamma·pathas: see AN 10.176.


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pettivisaya: world of the manes, realm of afflicted spirits. It is one of the four duggatis. Beings are lead to such states of existence by adopting the ten akusala·kamma·pathas: see AN 10.176.


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pharusavāca: [pharusa+vācā] harsh speech. It is one of the four verbal akusala·kamma·pathas. Pharusavāca is defined by the Buddha at AN 10.176. Its unpleasant consequences are described at AN 8.40.


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phassa: contact (generally between a sense organ and its object) - samphassasamphassa in compounds. It is often described as sixfold, see e.g. MN 9. It is sometimes described as the encounter of three phenomena: 'Cakkhu·ñca paṭicca rūpe ca uppajjati cakkhu-viññāṇaṃ. Tiṇṇaṃ saṅgati phasso' (and so on for the other five sense doors at SN 35.60). It generally appears in the following contexts:

1) as the sixth link paṭicca·samuppāda, conditioned by saḷāyatana and giving rise to vedanā. In this context, phassa is defined by the Buddha in six categories at SN 12.2, pertaining to each of the sense organs.

2) as one of the four āhāras. The Buddha describes how the nutriment of contact should be considered at SN 12.63.

3) as one of the four constituents of nāma.

4) in the Brahmajāla Sutta, the Buddha insists at length on phassa being the main phenomenon conditioning the arising of micchā·diṭṭhi.


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phoṭṭhabba: tangible bodily phenomenon - lit: tangible, touch, contact (grd. of phusati, to touch). Being one of the six types of sense objects, it is one of the twelve āyatanas.


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piṇḍapāta: food received in the alms-bowl by a bhikkhu. It is one of the four paccayas, requisites of a bhikkhu's life.


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pisuṇavācā: [pisuṇa+vācā] malicious speech. It is one of the four verbal akusala·kamma·pathas. Pisuṇavācā is defined by the Buddha at AN 10.176. Its unpleasant consequences are describeed at AN 8.40.


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pīti: exaltation, rapture, joy, delight, bliss, mental pleasantness.

1) it appears chiefly in the context of the jhānas, where it refers to a pleasant mental experience. It is not a physical phenomenon, it is rather said to belong to sankhārakkhandha. It is a factor of entry in the first jhāna, and it disappears at the entry in the third jhāna.

2) it is one of the seven bojjhaṅgas. Pīti is not necessarily free from kāma: it can be sāmisa as well as nirāmisa: see SN 36.31.


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pītisukha: [pīti+sukha] rapture and well being. Pīti refers to a mental phenomenon whereas sukha refers to a bodily phenomenon. It is a factor of entry in the first jhāna, and it disappears at the entry in the third jhāna.


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piyehi vippayoga dukkha: [piya vippayoga dukkha] suffering of being separated from what is pleasant/ dear.


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pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇa: [pubbe+nivāsa+anussati+ñāṇa] knowlege of remembrance of one's former states of existence. It is one of the three vijjās. The formula defining it is analyzed there.


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pūjā: honour, worship, devotional attention. It is said at DN 16:

'And celestial coral flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rain down upon the body of the Tathāgata (...) heavenly instruments makes music in the air out of reverence for the Tathāgata. Yet it is not thus, Ānanda, that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed, worshiped, and honored in the highest degree.

But, Ānanda, whatever bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman or laywoman, abides by the Dhamma, lives uprightly in the Dhamma, walks in the way of the Dhamma, it is by such a one that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed, worshiped, and honored in the highest degree.'


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puñña: merit, meritorious action, righteousness. It is a popular term for kusala-kamma, and often refers to the gift of food, robes, medicines and logings to the bhikkhus.


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puthujjana: ordinary/ average/ run-of-the-mill/ person, common worldling. Designates someone who is ignorant about the teaching of the Buddha.


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R
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rāga: avidity, craving, desire, greed, lust. Synonym of lobha and taṇhā.


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rūpa:

1) Matter, materiality. Matter is constituted of four elements: water, earth, air and fire.

2) Body. Rūpa is one of the five upādāna·kkhandhas. It is often cited as a constituent of nāma-rūpa, where nāma is taken as a collective term for the other four khandhas. A definition of Rūpa as a khandha is given by the Buddha at SN 22.79.

3) Object of sight, visible form.


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rūpabhava: [rūpa+bhava] existence/ becoming in the realm of form, which is taken as meaning particular types of Brahmā-lokas i.e. planes accessible only to those who master at least the first jhāna. Rūpabhava is one of the three types of bhava.


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S
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sabbaloke anabhiratasaññā
sabbasaṅkhāresu aniccānupassī
saddhā
saddhamma
saddhammassavana
saddhānusārī
sādhu
sagga
sakadāgāmī
sakadāgāmitā
sakkāyadiṭṭhi
saḷāyatana
samādhi
samāhita
samaṇa
samāpatti
samatha
sambodhi
sambojjhaṅga
sambuddha
sāmisa
sammāājīva
sammādiṭṭhi
sammākammanta
sammāpaṭipadā
sammappadhāna
sammāsamādhi
sammāsambodhi
sammāsambuddha
sammāsaṅkappa
sammāsati
sammāvācā
sammāvāyāma
sampajañña
sampajāna
samphappalāpa
saṃsāra
samseva
samudaya
saṃvara
saṃvega
saṃyojana
sandiṭṭhika
saṅgha
saṅghādisesa
saṅghānussati
saṅghe aveccappasāda
saṅkappa
saṅkhāra
saṅkhata
saññā
saññāvedayitanirodha
santuṭṭhitā
sappurisa
sappurisasaṃseva
sati
satimā
satipaṭṭhāna
satisampajañña
sato
satta
sattānaṃ cutūpapātañāṇa
sāvajja
sāvaka
sekha
senāsana
sikkhā
sikkhāpada
sīla
sīlabbata
sīlabbata parāmāsa
sīlabbatupādāna
sīlānussati
sivathika
soka
somanassa
somanassindriya
sota
sotāpanna
sotāpatti
sotāpattiyaṅga
sotindriya
subha
sucarita
sugata
sugati
sukha
sukhavedanā
sukhindriya
surāmerayapāna
surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhāna
surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhāna veramaṇī
suta
sutavā



sabbaloke anabhiratasaññā: [sabba+loka an+abhirata+saññā]

perception of distaste for the entire world, perception of non-delight in all the world. This practice is explained at AN 10.60.

♦ According to AN 7.49, when one often applies his/her mind to this practice, he/she is automatically repulsed by loka·citra (beautiful things of the world).

Sabba·loke an·abhirata·saññā is described at AN 4.163 as participating of a painful mode of practice (dukkhā paṭipadā).

Sabba·loke an·abhirata·saññā appears always in a list, generally with asubha·saññā, maraṇa·saññā, and āhāre paṭikūla·saññā. They are often collectively recommended for the sake of understanding or removing rāga (e.g. AN 5.303).

♦ Other perceptions usually associated with āhāre paṭikūla·saññā include anicca·saññā, anicce dukkha·saññā, anatta·saññā, ādīnava·saññā, pahāna·saññā, virāga·saññā and nirodha·saññā.


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sabbasaṅkhāresu aniccānupassī: [sabba+saṅkhāra anicca+anupassī]

observing inconstancy in all conditioned phenomena. Since all phenomena are ultimately saṅkhāras, this expression comes across as an emphatic way of referring to the practice of anicca·saññā.

Sabba·saṅkhāresu anicc·ānupassī is described at AN 4.163 as participating of a painful mode of practice (dukkhā paṭipadā).

'sabba·saṅkhāresu anicc·ānupassī [viharati]' appears generally in a list, together with asubha·saññā, sabba·loke an·abhirata·saññā, āhāre paṭikūla·saññā, and maraṇa·saññā. They are often collectively recommended for the sake of understanding or removing rāga (e.g. AN 5.303).


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saddhā: conviction. The conviction of a Buddha's disciple is chiefly expressed in the three anussatis. However, as explained at MN 27, this conviction must always be rooted in yathā·bhūtaṃ understanding and remain circumspect until the various stages of realization are attained. Thus, conviction has to leave reasonable space for doubt and should never become blind. A disciple having reached sotāpatti, having experienced Nibānna, has totally destroyed vicikicchā and has gained an unshakable conviction. Saddhā is one of the five spiritual indriyas and the five balas. Saddhā as one of the five balas is defined at AN 5.14.


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saddhamma: [sant+dhamma] actual dhamma, correct teaching, authentic dhamma i.e. which is (in line with) the law of nature, by opposition to other teachings which are incomplete, erroneous or counterfeit.


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saddhammassavana: [sant+dhamma+savana] hearing the correct teaching/ the authentic dhamma which is (in line with) the law of nature. It is one of the four sot·āpattiy·aṅgas.


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saddhānusārī: [saddhā+anusārī] conviction-follower, one relying on conviction. A definition is given at MN 70. Other definitions are given in each of the suttas of the Okkanti Saṃyutta (SN 25), in terms of degrees of convictionand belief about the reality of anicca in various dhammas: the twelve āyatanas, the five khandhas, the six types of phassa etc.

♦ In all these suttas, it is further said of saddhānusārīs: "abhabbo ca tāva kālaṃ kātuṃ yāva na sotāpattiphalaṃ sacchikaroti" ("it is impossible for such a person to die without experiencing the fruit of sotāpatti"), and equivalent statements are made in the conclusions to MN 22 and MN 34.


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sādhu:

1) (undefined:) very well, yes, excellent.

2) (adv:) well, thouroughly.

3) (adj:) good, virtuous, profitable, benefiting.


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sagga: state of happiness, heaven, paradise, celestial plane. Synonym of sugati.


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sakadāgāmī: [sakad+āgāmī] lit: 'once returner' i.e. one who will return to this (human) world not more than once - designates an individual having reached the second of the four maggas leading to Nibbāna.


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sakadāgāmitā: [sakad+āgāmī-tā] state of a sakadāgāmī.


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sakkāyadiṭṭhi: [sakkāya+diṭṭhi] belief in the existence of self. It is one of the three saṃyojanas which definitely dissappear at the attainment of sotāpatti. There are twenty types of belief in self, which are obtained by applying four expressions of this belief in each of the five khandhas: 1-5) identification to each of the khandhas, 6-10) belief to be contained in them, 11-15) to be independant from them, 16-20) to be their owner: see MN 44.


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saḷāyatana: sense organs. In a larger sens, it can be taken as refering both to the six physical sense organs and to their respective objects, i.e.

1. cakkhu
2. sota
3. ghāna
4. jivhā
5. kāya
6. mana
7. rūpa
8. sadda
9. gandha
10. rasa
11. phoṭṭhabba
12. dhamma

It is the fifth link of paṭicca·samuppāda, conditioned by nāma-rūpa and giving rise to phassa. In this context, the term is defined by the Buddha at SN 12.2.


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samādhi: composure, collectedness, concentration of the mind aiming at its unification and one-pointed-ness, developed by means of meditation, generally with the practice of ānāpānassati.

1) samādhi is the second of the three trainings by which the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga is practised. It consists of sammā·vāyāma, sammā·sati and sammā·samādhi. The latter is defined as the culture of the four (first) jhānas: see for example SN 45.8.

2) it is one of the seven bojjhaṅgas.

3) it is one of the five spiritual indriyas and the five balas. Samādhi as one of the five balas is defined at AN 5.14.


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samāhita: calm, stable, concentrated. Ajective derived from samatha.


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samaṇa: wanderer, ascetic, bhikkhu, recluse, hermit. Refers to the disciples of the Buddha as well as to those of other teachers, like the jains or the clothless.


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samāpatti: attainment. Refers chiefly to the success in the eight jhānas. Nirodha-samāpatti, i.e. entry in Nibbāna is sometimes added to the list as a ninth item.


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samatha:

1) tranquillity, calm, quietude. In this sense, almost synonym with samādhi and ekaggatā. Often cited in conjunction with vipassanā as two things which complete each other.

2) cessation of the saṅkhāras, in this sens synonym with nirodha.

3) settlement of legal matters.


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sambodhi: [sam+bodhi] complete awakening, perfect knowledge, complete enlightenment. Designates the awakening of the Buddha and the arahants.


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sambojjhaṅga: [sam+bojjh+aṅga] factor of awakening, of enlightenment. Numbered as seven, they are also called simply bojjhaṅgas. These seven are:

1. sati
2. dhamma·vicaya
3. vīriya
4. pīti
5. passaddhi
6. samādhi
7. upekkhā.

They are often described as viveka-nissitaṃ virāga-nissitaṃ nirodha-nissitaṃ vossagga-pariṇāmiṃ: based on detachment/ seclusion, based on desirelessness, based on cessation, resulting in release.


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sambuddha: [sam+Buddha] completely awakened being. Refers to a Buddha.


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sāmisa: having food, carnal, fleshy, having interest, stained by wordly taints, with attachment. Antonym of nirāmisa.


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sammāājīva: [sammā+ājīva] right means of livelihood. It is the fifth constituent of the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga. See the definition given by the Buddha at SN 45.8. As a matter of fact, the Buddha does not give any precise definition of the term. There is nevertheless one sutta in which he lists five wrong types of business not to be engaged in: see AN 5.177.


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sammādiṭṭhi: [sammā+diṭṭhi] right view. It is the first constituent of the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga. The Buddha gives two definitions of the term:

1) the first one is found at AN 10.176 and focuses on the understanding of the law of cause and consequence as regards to morality;

2) the other one is found at SN 45.8 and focuses on the knowledge of the four ariya·saccas. Sāriputta also expounds 16 ways in which there is right view in the sammā·diṭṭhi Sutta.


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sammākammanta: [sammā+kammanta] right action. It is the fourth consituant of the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga. See the definition given by the Buddha at SN 45.8: it matches to the three bodily kusala·kamma·pathas.


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sammāpaṭipadā: [sammā+paṭipadā] right path, correct way. It is synonym for the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga and an antonym of micchā·paṭipadā.


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sammappadhāna: [sammā+padhāna] right effort. Exact synonym of sammā·vāyāma. A definition is given at AN 4.13: it is divided in four types of effort consisting of getting rid of akusala mental states and developping kusala mental states. This definition of sammappadhāna is identical to the definition of sammā·vāyāma, so that these terms are exact synonyms.


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sammāsamādhi: [sammā+samādhi] right concentration. It is the eighth constituent of the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga. See the definition given by the Buddha at SN 45.8: it consists of the description of the four jhānas.


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sammāsambodhi: [sammā+sam+bodhi] right and complete awakening - designates specifically the awakening of the Budhha.


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sammāsambuddha: [sammā+sam+Buddha] correctly and completely awakened - designates specifically the Budhha.


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sammāsaṅkappa: [sammā+saṅkappa] right intention/ thought. It is the second constituent of the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga. See the definition given by the Buddha at SN 45.8: they consist of nekkhamma-saṅkappa, a·byāpāda-saṅkappa and a-vihiṃsā-saṅkappa.


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sammāsati: [sammā+sati] right awareness. It is the seventh constituent of the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga. See the definition given by the Buddha at SN 45.8: it actually consists of the four satipaṭṭhānas.


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sammāvācā: [sammā+vācā] right speech. It is the third constituent of the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga. See the definition given by the Buddha at SN 45.8: it matches to the four vocal kusala·kamma·pathas.


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sammāvāyāma: [sammā+vāyāma] right effort. It is the sixth constituent of the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga. See the definition given by the Buddha at SN 45.8: it is divided in four types of effort consisting of getting rid of akusala mental states and developping kusala mental states.


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sampajañña: thorough understanding, constant discernment of impermanence. The term is derived from the verb jaññā (to know, to undertand) and intensified by the addition of the intensifying prefix pa- and then, of the prefix sam- which denotes the completeness (or here the constance) of the action. The term appears in the vast majority of cases in combination with sati, either as two separated words or in the compound satisampajañña. There is no definition of sampajañña alone, but a definition of satisampajañña is found at AN 8.9: it is identical with the definition of sampajāna given at SN 47.35.


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sampajāna: [sam+pa+jāno] 'endowed with constant discernment of impermanence' - adjective dérived from sampajañña. The Buddha gives two different explanations of the term, shedding light on the two aspects of its meaning:

1) the first one, which is the actual definition, is found at SN 47.35 and focuses on the understanding of anicca;

2) the other one, which is not truly a definition, since it defines the term on the basis of sampajañña, is found at DN 16, and focuses on the importance of constancy. A semantic analysis of this definition is available here

The Buddha frequently reminds the bhikkhus to be both sato and sampajāna, which shows that these two attitudes complete each other.


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samphappalāpa: [sampha+palāpa] frivolous talk. It is one of the four verbal akusala·kamma·pathas. Samphappalāpa is defined by the Buddha at AN 10.176. Its unpleasant consequences are described at AN 8.40.


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saṃsāra: cycle of rebirth, transmigration, continued existence.


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samseva: association with, companionship.


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samudaya: rise, origin, origination, cause. Appears in the compound dukkha·samudaya.


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saṃvara: restraint. Chiefly refers to the sixfold restraint of the āyatanas, in order to prevent the arising of āsavas. See the corresponding section in MN 2. Also, MN 152 explains in detail how the restraint of the sense faculties is to be practiced.


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saṃvega: motivation, sense of urgency.


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saṃyojana: fetter, bond, attachment. There are 10 saṃyojanas, listed by the Buddha at AN 10.13:

1. sakkāya-diṭṭhi
2. vicikicchā
3. sīlabbata parāmāsa
4. kāma·cchanda
5. byāpāda
6. rūpa-rāga (for rūpa-bhava)
7. a-rūpa-rāga (for arūpa-bhava)
8. māna
9. uddhacca
10. avijjā

A sotāpanna is said to have abandoned the first three. The first five together are called orambhāgiya, i.e. connected to what is lower, and are said to be totally abandoned by an anāgāmī; the last five are called uddhambhāgiya (lit: 'belonging to the upper part'), and have been abandoned only by an arahant.


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sandiṭṭhika: visible, actual, belonging to this life - one of the attributes of the dhamma, which appears in its standard description (for which see dhammānussati).


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saṅgha: assembly, community - especially an assembly of bhikkhus. As the third of the tiratana and the tisaraṇa, it refers only to the ariyas. The formula describing the Saṅgha is analyzed there.


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saṅghādisesa: [saṅgha+ādi+sesa] class of offenses to the Vinaya, relatively grave, so called because it entails two formal meetings of the saṅgha, the first initially, the second subsequently. The offender is put under probation for six days, during which he is suspended from his rank, he is not allowed to go anywhere unless he is accompanied by four other monks of normal status, and every day he has to confess his transgression to every monk residing in the monastery, and to those who simply visit it. At the end of his probation, twenty monks must be gathered to reinstate him at his former rank.


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saṅghānussati: [saṅgha+anussati] recollection of the Saṅgha. It is defined by the Buddha at AN 6.10. The formula is analyzed there.


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saṅghe aveccappasāda: [Saṅgha+avecca+pasāda] confidence in the Saṅgha which is confirmed by experience; verified/ confirmed confidence in the Saṅgha (Thanissaro B./B. Bodhi), perfect faith in the Saṅgha (R. Davis) - lit: 'definitely joyful on account of the Saṅgha'. It is one of the four sot·āpattiy·aṅgas.


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saṅkappa: thought, intention, purpose, plan. May be in some cases equivalent to vitakka.


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saṅkhāra: [saṃ+karoti] constructions, constructed phenomena, conditioned phenomena, mental constructions, mental fabrications, volitional formations. The word saṅkhāra, which may have, according to the context, either active or passive connotations, designates either in the active sense the things that gather, construct and compound other phenomena, refering to the 'form-creating' faculty of the mind, often described as volitional or intentional, or in the passive sense it designates rather the things which are gathered, constructed and compounded, in which sense it can refer to anything in the world (except Nibbāna), whether a tree, a cloud, a human being, a thought or a molecule. In the latter sense, it may describe the mental conditioning that defines the unique way in which an individual subconsciously gathers in clusters and perceives the various phenomena of the world, defining his unique character or so-called personnality at any time. The word appears in various contexts:

1) as the second link of paṭicca·samuppāda, where it denotes the volitions creating kamma, responsible among other things for rebirth. The saṅkhāras are conditioned by avijjā and give rise to viññāṇa. In this context, the saṅkhāras are described by the Buddha in three categories at SN 12.2: kāya-saṅkhāras (among other things in and out breathing), vācā-saṅkhāras (vitakka-vicāra) and mana-saṅkhāras (saññā and vedanā).

2) as the fourth of the five upādāna·kkhandhas. Saṅkhāra in this sense is defined by the Buddha as sixfold at SN 22.79: each type of saṅkhāra is correlated to one of the six types of sense objects.

3) in a larger sense, as refering to all conditioned phenomena, i.e. phenomena arising on the basis of a combination of conditions, which eventually comprehend all the phenomena of the universe, except Nibbāna. Here, it is their chracteristic of anicca which is underlined as important, since the understanding of anicca enables the understanding of the absence of reliability in all mundane delight and inspires the sense of urgency regarding liberation (as long as the conditions of access are present).


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saṅkhata: conditioned, constructed, produced by a cause. Adjective derived from saṅkhāra (qv. for details).


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saññā:

1) in a general sense, perception, sense (of sth), consciousness, recognizing part of the mind.

2) it is one of the five upādāna·kkhandhas. A definition is given by the Buddha at SN 22.79.

3) it is one of the five constituents of nāma.


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saññāvedayitanirodha: [saññā+vedayita+nirodha]cessation of perception and feeling. Sometimes considered as the ninth jhāna. May be considered as a synonym for Nibbāna.


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santuṭṭha: contented, satisfied, pleased, happy. Generally with reference to the four paccayas.


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santuṭṭhitā: contentedness, satisfaction (with little). Generally with reference to the four paccayas.


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sappurisa: good/ virtuous man, superior person. Often contrasted with asappurisa, as at AN 4.204, where a sappurisa is defined as one who abstains from the ten akusala kamma·pathas and undertakes the ten kusala kamma·pathas. At AN 4.205 and SN 45.25, a sappurisa is defined as one who follows the sammāpaṭipadā, and at AN 4.202 as one who as conviction, who is modest, scrupulous, learned, resolved, endowed with sati and paññā.


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sappurisasaṃseva: [sappurisa+saṃseva] association with good/ virtuous men. It is one of the four sot·āpattiy·aṅgas.


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sati: the term has two meanings which, although apparently opposed are actually related:

1) awareness, attention, mindfulness, fact of being clearly conscious/ vigilant. It is one of the seven bojjhaṅgas, said to be the most important because the other six are to be developed along with it. The standard defintion of sammā·sati, given for example at SN 45.8, actually consists of the description of the four satipaṭṭhānas. Sati is one of the five spiritual indriyas and the five balas. Sati as one of the five balas is defined at AN 5.14.

2) memory, recollection. This aspect of sati is actually also covered by the definition given at AN 5.14.

These two meanings are related in the sense that an awareness supported by the collectedness of concentration is a necessary condition to get proper perception and understanding of what is happening in the present moment, which enables an easy recollection at a later time of what precisely was happening, of what was said, what was done at a prior moment, even a long time before. In one case sati is defined as per what is happening in the present moment, and in the other as per the qualities that develop in the bhikkhu when he has been endowed with this awareness of the present moment for a long time.


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satimā: mindful, thoughtful, contemplative, careful, reflecting, of retentive memory or active mind. Said of one who is endowed with sati. The word appears in the formula of the third jhāna and in the description of the practice of the four satipaṭṭhānas. The stock formula defining the term is accessible here.


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satipaṭṭhāna: [sati+upaṭṭhāna] attendance on/ presence of awareness. The word could alternatively be analysed as [sati+paṭṭhāna], as suggested in the PTS dictionary, but according to Bhante Anālayo, in that case the compound would have rather been satippaṭṭhāna; more importantly, in the detailed explanation of the term as given for example in the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta, the Buddha explains 'sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti', making cleary use of the word upaṭṭhāna in the compound paccupaṭṭhitā [paṭi+upaṭṭhitā]. Satipaṭṭhāna is declined in four parts:

1) kāyānupassanā
2) vedanānupassanā
3) cittānupassanā
4) dhammānupassanā

A definition and a short description of the way in which they are to be practised is given at SN 47.40, and a full-length desciption is found in the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta. Actually the definition of the satipaṭṭhānas is identical to the definitions of sammā·sati and sato. The practice of the satipaṭṭhānas is a practice of every moment and is declared by the Buddha to be the ekāyano maggo (direct way/ way having only one destination) for the realization of Nibbāna.


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satisampajañña: [sati+sampajañña] awareness along with discernment of impermanence. The term is defined by the Buddha at AN 8.9: it is clear here that the practice of satisampajañña involves the perception of arising and passing away of phenomena, i.e. understanding of anicca.


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sato: mindful, attentive, vigilant, thoughtful, conscious - adjective derived from sati. The Buddha defines the term at SN 47.35: it actually corresponds to practice the four satipaṭṭhānas. The Buddha very often reminds the bhikkhus to be both sato and sampajāna, which shows that these two terms complete each other.


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satta: living being, sentient being.


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sattānaṃ cutūpapātañāṇa: [satta cutūpapāta+ñāṇa] the knowledge of the passing away & reappearance of beings. It is one of the three vijjās. The formula defining it is analyzed there.


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sāvajja:

I) (adj:) blameable, faulty.

II) (n:) what is censurable.

Opposed to anavajja.


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sāvaka: hearer, listener, disciple.


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sekha: one under training. Refers to anyone who as not yet become an arahant and strives to get closer to that state. Typically, such a person follows the three sikkhās.


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senāsana: lodging, dwelling, sleeping place. It is one of the four paccayas, requisites of a bhikkhu's life. The ideal dwelling place is described as fivefold by the Buddha at AN 10.11.


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sikkhā: training. It is threefold:

1. adhisīlasikkhā

2. adhi·citta·sikkhā

3. adhipaññāsikkhā


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sikkhāpada: [sikkhā+pada] foot (foundation) of the training.

The basic set of precepts to be observed by all is the pañcasīla:

1. pāṇātipāta veramaṇī
2. adinnādāna veramaṇī
3. kāmesu·micchā·cāra veramaṇī
4. musā-vāda veramaṇī
5. surā-meraya-majja-pamādaṭṭhāna veramaṇī

The set of eight sikkhāpadas is undertaken by lay poeple on uposatha days or during retreats, and contains three more rules:

6. to abstain from eating after midday

7. to abstain from sensual entertainments such as music, shows, singing, dancing

(7bis). and the use of guarlands, perfumes, cosmetics, adornments etc.

8. to abstain from sleeping in a high and luxurious bed.

The set of ten rules splits in two the 7th rule mentioned above and adds the rule of abstaining from accepting money. The sikkhāpadas amount to 227 for the bhikkhus and 311 for the bhikkhunis.


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sīla: morality, virtue. It is the foundation of the entire practice of the Buddha's teaching: to abstain from all physical, vocal or mental actions that may be harmful to oneself and/or to others. It is the first of the three sikkhās by which the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga is practised. It encompasses three of its eight factors: sammāvācā, sammākammanto and sammā·ājīva. Sīla is a necessary prerequisite to the rest of the practice, i.e. samādhi and paññā.

The basic set of precepts to be observed by all is the pañcasīla:

1. pāṇātipāta veramaṇī
2. adinnādāna veramaṇī
3. kāmesu·micchā·cāra veramaṇī
4. musā-vāda veramaṇī
5. surā-meraya-majja-pamādaṭṭhāna veramaṇī

The set of eight sīlas is undertaken by lay poeple on uposatha days or during retreats, and contains three more rules:

6. to abstain from eating after midday

7. to abstain from sensual entertainments such as music, shows, singing, dancing

(7bis). and the use of guarlands, perfumes, cosmetics, adornments etc.

8. to abstain from sleeping in a luxurious bed.

The set of ten rules splits in two the 7th rule mentioned above and adds the rule of abstaining from accepting money.


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sīlānussati: [sīla+anussati] Recollection of one's own virtues. It is defined by the Buddha at AN 6.10. A detailed analysis of the formula is found here.


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sīlabbata: [sīla+vata] rites and rituals, religious practice. They are often stated to be upaṭṭhānasāra [upaṭṭhāna-sāra], i.e. practised as being essential or with the delusion that they suffice. They can be advantageous as well as disadvantageous: see the Sīlabbata Sutta. They constitue one of the four upādānas; see also sīlabbata parāmāsa.


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sīlabbata parāmāsa: [sīlabbata+parāmāsa] contagion of/ attachment to rites and rituals/ religious practices. Synonym of sīlabbat-upādāna. Sometimes translated as 'belief in the efficiency of rites and rituals', i.e. that they suffice. It is one of the three saṃyojanas that totally disappear upon the attainment of sotāpatti.


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sīlabbatupādāna: [sīlabbata+upādāna] clinging to rites and rituals/ religious practices. Synonym of sīlabbata parāmāsa. It is one of the four upādānas.


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sivathika: charnel ground, place where dead bodies are disposed of and rot in the open air, eaten by animals. The standard set of nine sivathika observations is described in detail at DN 22.


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soka: sorrow.


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somanassa: [so+manas] mental pleasantness, mental ease, gladness, joy, happiness.


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somanassindriya: [somanassa+indriya] faculty of mental pleasantness. It is defined at SN 48.38 as any mental pleasantness. It is one of the five sensitive indriyas.


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sota:

1) the ear. It is one of the twelve āyatanas.

2) stream (of a river). A definition is given by Sāriputta at SN 55.5: it is also a name for the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga.


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sotāpanna: [sota+āpanna] stream-enterer, lit: 'having entered the stream'. Designates a person who has reached sotāpatti. He is described as having destroyed the three lowest saṃyojanas viz. sakkāya-diṭṭhi, vicikicchā and sīlabbata parāmāsa. Having vanquished vicikicchā, he is also said to have gained unshakable confidence in the dhamma. Furthermore, he is said to have destroyed all tendencies to break any of the pañcasīla and therefore to be totally free from the perspective of any future existence in a vinipāta, to have reached a non-return point on his spiritual path, from which he is certain to attain sambodhi within his next seven lives. A sotāpanna has become an ariya. For further details about the characteristics of a stream-entry, see: sotāpatti; for further details reagarding the factors leading to stream-entry, see: sot·āpattiy·aṅga.


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sotāpatti: [sota+āpatti] stream-entry. Stage of practice reached by a sotāpanna i.e. the first of the four maggas leading to Nibbāna. Stream-entry is also called dhammābhisamaya [dhamma-abhisamaya] - penetration of the Dhamma, dhammacakkhupaṭilābha [dhamma+cakkhu+paṭilābha] - acquisition of the eye of the Dhamma, or as the understanding that 'yaṃ kiñci samudaya-dhammaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ nirodha-dhamma' - 'whatever things have the nature of arising, all [of them] have the nature of passing away' see: SN 56.11.

Sotāpatti is also described as the destruction of the three lowest saṃyojanas i.e. sakkāya-diṭṭhi, vicikicchā and sīlabbata parāmāsa. For further details about the characteristics of a stream-enterer, see: sotāpanna; for further details reagarding the factors leading to stream-entry, see: sot·āpattiy·aṅga.


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sotāpattiyaṅga: [sotāpatti+aṅga] factors of/for stream-entry. There are several tetrads of sotāpattiyaṅgas. The most common one is described at DN 16. It consists of:

1. Buddhe aveccappasāda

2. Dhamme aveccappasāda

3. Saṅghe aveccappasāda

4. a sīla which is developed to perfection.

At DN 16, this tetrad is called dhammādāsa and it is stated that everyone who is truly endowed with these four can be certain by himself to be a sotāpanna. The last factor is sometimes replaced by thorough generosity or udayatthagāmini paññā. These are called factors of stream-entry.

A completely different tetrad, refering rather to factors for (i.e. leading to) stream-entry is given at SN 55.5:

1. sappurisa-saṃseva

2. saddhammassavana

3. yoniso·manasi·kāra

4. dhamm·ānudhamma·ppaṭipatti.

Further qualities endowed with which it is said to be impossibe to pass away without attaining sotāpatti are given in the Okkanti Saṃyutta: they consist of either conviction or insight into anicca applied to ten types of phenomena.


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sotindriya: [sota+indriya] faculty of hearing, faculty of the ear, organ of the ear. It is one of the six sensory indriyas.


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subha:

1) (adj:) beautiful, auspicious, lucky, pleasant, shining, bright

2) (n:) beauty, pleasantness, pleasure, welfare, good, well-being, cleanliness

♦ At SN 46.51, it is said that a subha·nimitta accompanied by ayoniso manasikāra is the cause for the arising and multiplication of kāma·cchanda, which is one of the five nīvaraṇas.


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sucarita: [su+carita] right conduct, good behavior. Refers to the respect of sīla and the practice of the ten kusala kamma·pathas.


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sugata: [su+gata] faring well, happy. Often used as an epithet for the Buddha.


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sugati: [su+gati] happy state, heaven, good rebirth. Synonym of sagga and antonym of duggati.


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sukha: wellbeing, happiness, ease | (adj): agreeable, pleasant. It characterizes one of the three types of sensations: sukha·vedanā. It is also a factor of entry in the first jhāna, it qualifies the particular feeling experienced by the meditator in the third jhāna, as stated in the formula attributed to the ariya in the standard description of that jhāna: ‘upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī’ - 'equanimous and mindful, abiding in pleasure'. It finally subsides at the entry in the fourth jhāna.


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sukhavedanā: [sukha+vedanā] pleasant feeling/sensation, pleasure. It is one of the three (main) types of vedanā.


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sukhindriya: [sukha+indriya] faculty of pleasure/comfort. It is defined at SN 48.38 as any bodily pleasantness. It is one of the five sensitive indriyas.


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surāmerayapāna: [surā+meraya+pāna] drinking liquors and spirits. This action is to be abandoned to undertake the fifth of the pañcasīla. The unpleasant consequences of surā-meraya-pāna are described by the Buddha at AN 8.40. See also: surā-meraya-majja-pamādaṭṭhāna veramaṇī.


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surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhāna: [surā+meraya+majja+pamāda+aṭṭhāna] liquors, spirits and intoxicants that cause carelessness. It is the object to be abstained from in the fifth of the pañcasīla.


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surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhāna veramaṇī: [surā+meraya+majja+pamāda+aṭṭhāna veramaṇī] abstaining from liquors, spirits and intoxicants which cause carelessness. It is the fifth of the pañcasīla.


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suta: learning.


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sutavā: [suta-vā] instructed, litt: 'one who has heard/ learned'. Refers to someone who knows at least intellectually the dhamma.


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T
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y

taṇhā
Tathāgata
tāvatiṃsa
thīna·middhā
tilakkhaṇa
tiracchāna
tiracchānakathā
tiracchāna·yoni
tiratana
tisaraṇa
tusita



taṇhā: craving, desire, thirst, lust. Synonym of rāga and lobha. The term appears chiefly in two contexts:

1) in the exposition of dukkha·samudaya-ariya·sacca (see SN 56.11), it is declared to be the cause of dukkha and it is declined in three types:

1. kāma-taṇhā

2. bhava-taṇhā

3. vibhava-taṇhā

Here aversion is understood as being encompassed in taṇhā, as being the craving to get rid of something.

2) it is the eighth link of paṭicca·samuppāda, conditioned by vedanā and giving rise to upādāna. In this context, the Buddha gives a sixfold definition of taṇhā at SN 12.2: one for each type of sense objects.


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Tathāgata: [tathā+gata] lit: 'the one thus gone'. Epithet used by the Buddha to designate himself. The beautiful simile of the bird on the merchant ship at AN 6.54 clarifies the meaning of this word.


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tāvatiṃsa: name of the second of the six deva-lokas pertaining to kāma-bhava, lit: 'the thirty-three'. The devas living in this plane are said to be lead by Sakka and to live on top of mount Meru. At AN 3.71 it is said that the length of a day and night in this plane of existence is equivalent to 100 human years and that the average lifespan of these devas is of one thousand such years, which equals altgether 36.5 million human years.


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thīnamiddhā: [thīna+middhā] dullness and drowsiness. It is one of the five nīvaraṇas.

♦ The causes for the arising and multiplication of thīna·middhā are stated at SN 46.51. The way to remove it is explained here, and it is prased exactly like the development of vīriya as a bojjhaṅga (see here), so it can be concluded that vīriya is the antidote for thīna·middhā.


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tilakkhaṇa: [ti+lakkhaṇa] the three characteristics of all phenomena, i.e.

1. anicca

2. dukkha

3. anattā


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tiracchāna: animal. A description of the animal world is given by the Buddha at MN 129.


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tiracchānakathā: [tiracchāna+kathā] low discussions/ conversations, lit: 'animal conversations'. These are listed at AN 10.69.


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tiracchānayoni: [tiracchāna+yoni] animal realm - lit: 'animal womb'. It is one of the four duggatis. Beings are lead to such states of existence by adopting the ten akusala kamma·pathas: see AN 10.176.


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tiratana: [ti+ratana] the three gems, i.e.

1. the Buddha

2. the dhamma

3. the Saṅgha


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tisaraṇa: [ti+saraṇa] the three refuges, i.e.

1. the Buddha

2. the dhamma

3. the Saṅgha


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tusita: class of devas living in the fourth of the six deva-lokas pertaining to kāma-bhava, ranking between those of Yāma and those of Nimmānaratī.

At AN 3.71 it is said that the length of a day and night in this plane of existence is equivalent to 400 human years and that the average lifespan of these deva is of four thousand such years, which equals altgether 584 million human years.


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U
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | Y

udāna
udayatthagāmini paññā
uddhacca
uddhaccakukkucca
upādāna
upādānakkhandha
upadhi
upakkilesa
upapatti
upāsaka
upasama
upekkhā
upekkh·indriya
uposatha
uttarimanussadhamma



udāna: exclamation, lit: 'breathing out' - upward aspiration, enthusiastic or joyous utterance, expression of intense feeling, whether of joy or sorrow, in words. It also designate one of the division of the early collection of the Buddha's teaching, as described in certain suttas, and where these utterances where apparently gathered. In the current version of the Sutta Piṭaka, it has been incorporated in the Khuddaka Nikāya.


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udayatthagāmini paññā: [udaya+attha+gāmī paññā] insight directed towards the arising and passing away. It is sometimes included in the four sot·āpattiy·aṅgas.


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uddhacca: mental agitation, restlessness, excitement, distraction, flurry. It is one of the ten saṃyojanas.


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uddhaccakukkucca: [uddhacca+kukkucca] mental agitaton/ excitement and worry. It is one of the five nīvaraṇas.

♦ At SN 46.51, it is said that ayoniso manasikāra applied to cetaso avūpasama (non-stillness of the mind) is the cause for the arising and multiplication of uddhacca·kukkucca, while yoniso manasikāra applied to its opposite (cetaso vūpasama) constitutes its antidote (see here).


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upādāna: clinging, attachment. It is the ninth link of paṭicca·samuppāda, conditioned by taṇhā and giving rise to bhava. In this context, upādāna is defined by the Buddha as fourfold at SN 12.2:

1. kāmupādāna
2. diṭṭhupādāna
3. sīlabbatupādāna
4. attavādupādāna

The tendency to cling to phenomena manifests itself through the five upādāna·kkhandhas.


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upādānakkhandha: [upādāna+khandha] aggregates of attachment, of which there are five.

Here a being is viewed as the collection of five aggregates of phenomena, to which untrained beings are deeply attached out of ignorance, considering them - without discerning them - as constituents of their attā, which is described as the ultimate nature of dukkha by the formula 'saṃkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā': see for example SN 56.11.

These five are:

1. rūpa

2. vedanā

3. Saññā
4. saṅkhāra
5. Viññāṇa

They are defined at SN 22.79. It is stated at MN 43 that vedanā, Saññā and Viññāṇa are deeply associated and that it is impossible to clearly separate one from another to show their difference.


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upadhi: acquisitions: spouse, children, cattle etc.


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upakkilesa: impurity, defilement, depravity, perversion, anything that spoils or obstructs. At AN 3.102, the Buddha expounds nine types of upakkilesas which appear during the practice of jhānas:

1. kāya-duccarita
2. vacī-duccarita
3. mana-duccarita
4. kāma-vitakka
5. byāpāda-vitakka
6. vihiṃsā-vitakka
7. ñāti-vitakka
8. janapada-vitakka
9. an-avaññatti-paṭisaṃyutto-vitakka - thoughts connected with the fact of not being inferior (inferiority complexes).

Elsewhere, for example at AN 9.40, the five nīvaraṇas are called upakkilesas {hover mouse over following words:} 'cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe' - defilements of the mind that weaken insight.

At MN 7, a list of 16 is given:

1. abhijjhā-visama-lobha
2. byāpāda
3. kodha
4. upanāha
5. makkha
6. paḷāsa
7. issā
8. macchariya
9. māyā
10. sāṭheyya
11. thambha
12. sārambha
13. māna
14. atimāna
15. mada
16. pamāda


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upapatti: rearising, rebirth.


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upāsaka: lay disciple. The lay disciple is defined by the Buddha at AN 8.25 as someone who has taken refuge in the Buddha, the dhamma and the Saṅgha. Five main wrong types of livelihood to be avoided by the lay disciple are listed at AN 5.177.


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upasama: appeasement, allaying, cessation, quietude, calm.


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upekkhā: equanimity, disinterest, indifference, attitude of neutrality and impartiality towards all phenomena, specially bodily sensations. The word mainly appears in the following contexts:

1) equanimity is the chief characteristic of the fourth jhāna.

2) it is one of the seven bojjhaṅgas.

3) it is one of the four brahma-vihāras. The practice of upekkhā as a brahmavihāra is described at AN 3.66. At AN 4.123 it is stated that a steadfast practice of upekkhā can result in various types of rebirth in Brahmā-loka.


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upekkhindriya: [upekkhā+indriya] faculty of equanimity. It is defined at SN 48.38 as any physical or mental neither pleasant nor unpleasant phenomenon. It is one of the five sensitive indriyas.


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uposatha: fasting day. There are four uposatha days in a lunar month: the 1st, the 8th, the 14th or 15th and the 23d. Usually the bhikkhus recite the pātimokkha during the new moon and the full moon night, that is every fortnight. On these four days, lay disciples undertake the eight sīlas, they listen to Dhamma talks and practice meditation.


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uttarimanussadhamma: superhuman state. This refers to the jhānas, as well as everything they provide access to, including iddhis, and the four stages of awakening.


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V
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vācā
vana
vassa
vedanā
vedanānupassanā
vibhavataṇhā
vicāra
vicikicchā
vihesā
vihiṃsā
vijjā
vimokkha
vimutti
vinaya
vinipāta
viññāṇa
viññāṇañcāyatana
vipāka
vipallāsa
vipariṇāma
vipassanā
virāga
virāgasaññā
vīriya
vīriyārambha
visuddhi
vitakka
vitakkavicārā
viveka
vossagga



vācā: speech. Sammāvācā is a constituent of the ariya aṭṭh·aṅgika magga and describes what speech has to be. Tiracchāna-kathā is what speech should not be.


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vana: wood, forest, grove. It may be connoted as a place of sport, of danger or as the resort of ascetics, where they find the peace of loneliness.


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vassa: rain, rainy season, monsoon (roughly from June to Ocotber in Northern India). Generally designates the 'rains retreat'. The seniority of a bhikkhu is counted in terms of vassas. It was the custom in India that renunciates spend the rainy season in a definite place. In the beginnings, there was no particular rule, but the bhikkhus were criticized for crushing the herbs, damaging plants, and harming the animals leaving in dependence on them (see Mv 3.1). The Buddha then allowed the bhikkhus to stay in a definite place during the rains. Later on, it became an obligation. The bhikkhus must stay in a dwelling place having walls and a door which can be opened and closed properly. It lasts three months, generally starting on the full moon day around mid-July. They must commit themselves to stay in that place for those three months, and if they don't, the vassa will not count in the calculation of their seniority. They can however leave the place for a period not exceeding seven days. The vassa ends with the ceremony of kaṭhina, during which lay people offer certain things to the bhikkhus, specially robes.


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vedanā: feeling, experience, sensation. The term applies either to a particular aspect of phenomena taking place both in the body and in the mind (i.e. their pleasantness, unpleasantness or neutrality) or to a specific ability or function of the mind (to feel pleasantness, unpleasantness or neutrality of phenomena). Thus, the word vedanā should not be mistaken for meaning bodily sensation, which in Pali is rather rendered by the word phoṭṭhabba. It appears in various contexts:


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1) vedanā is described as twofold, as for example at SN 36.22: pertaining either to the body (in which case it may be translated by sensation or bodily feeling) or to the mind (mental feeling).

2) vedanā is mostly described as threefold:

1. sukha·vedanā

2. dukkha·vedanā

3. adukkham·asukhā·vedanā

See the very short Suddhika Sutta (SN 36.30): 'Tisso imā vedanā. Katamā tisso? Sukhā vedanā, dukkhā vedanā, adukkhamasukhā vedanā. Imā kho tisso vedanā'.

Each type of sensation is connected to one of the three akusala·mūlas:

1. sukha·vedanā is connected with rāga/ lobha

2. dukkha·vedanā is connected with dosa

3. adukkham·asukhā·vedanā is connected with moha.


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3) vedanā is also sometimes described as fivefold, as at SN 36.22, where it is analysed in terms of the five sensitive indriyas. These five sensitive indriyas are clearly identified with the three vedanās at SN 48.38.

4) alternatively, at AN 6.63, these three types of vedanā are also listed as sixfold as follows:

1. sāmisa-sukha·vedanā

2. nirāmisa-sukha·vedanā

3. sāmisa-dukkha·vedanā

4. nirāmisa-dukkha·vedanā

5. sāmisa-adukkham·asukhā·vedanā

6. nirāmisa-adukkham·asukhā·vedanā.

This analysis also correspond to the practice of vedanānupassanā.

5) other ways to analyze vedanā are given at SN 36.22: as 6-fold, 18-fold, 36-fold or even 108-fold.

6) vedanā also designates one of the five upādāna·kkhandhas. In this context, a definition is given by the Buddha at SN 22.79: here vedanā is the ability of the mind to 'feel' phenomena, i.e. to perceive their pleasantness, unpleasantness or neutrality.

7) vedanā is the seventh link of paṭicca·samuppāda, conditioned by phassa and giving rise to taṇhā. In this context, vedanā is defined as sixfold by the Buddha at SN 12.2: each type of feeling arising on account of each of the six types of sense objects.

Here we can clearly understand that vedanā plays a very important role in the teaching of the Buddha:

a) his teaching is often described as nothing but the full understanding of dukkha

b) the second ariya·sacca states that the main cause of dukkha is taṇhā

c) in paṭicca·samuppāda, it is stated that the main cause for the arising of taṇhā is vedanā

d) therefore, training to develop vedanānupassanā by establishing upekkhā towards feelings (which is the way to destroy taṇhā which arises on account of them) along with the yathā·bhūtaṃ understanding of anicca (which is the way to destroy avijjā, the first link of paṭicca·samuppāda), is a very direct and indispensable way to attain dukkha·nirodha.

8) vedanā is one of the five constituents of nāma.


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vedanānupassanā: [vedanā+anupassanā] observation of feelings/sensations. It is one of the four satipaṭṭhānas. A broad definition is given at SN 47.40 and more detailed one in the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta: it consists of the awareness regarding the type of vedanā which is being experienced: sukha·vedanā, dukkha·vedanā or adukkham·asukhā·vedanā, in conjunction with an awareness regarding whether the mind is sāmisa or nirāmisa.
Derivative: vedanānupassī.


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vibhavataṇhā: [vibhava+taṇhā] craving for non-existence. It is one of the three types of taṇhā.


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vicāra: mental associations, thought process, associations of ideas, discursive thinking always combined with vitakka in the four Nikāyas. It is a constituent of the verbal functions of the mind. It constitutes the movement of the mind and manisfests itsef as a continuous activity of the mind. It is present together with vitakka at the entry in the first jhāna, and its cessation is a requisite condition for reaching the second jhāna. See vitakka-vicāra for comparison and differences from vitakka.


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vicikicchā: doubt, uncertainty.

1) it is one of the five nīvaraṇas.

2) it is one of the three saṃyojanas which disappear completely with the attainment of sotāpatti.

3) it is one of the seven anusayas.

♦ The way to remove vicikicchā is explained at SN 46.51, and it is prased exactly like the development of dhamma·vicaya as a bojjhaṅga (see here), so it can be concluded that dhamma·vicaya is the antidote for vicikicchā. it is said that ayoniso manasikāra applied to a subha·nimitta is the cause for the arising and multiplication of kāma·cchanda, while yoniso manasikāra applied to an asubhanimitta will remove it (here).


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vihesā: vexation, annoyance, injury - appears as a synonym for vihiṃsā.


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vihiṃsā: violence, cruelty, ferocity, injury, will to injure, to destroy. Vihiṃsā-vitakka is one of the nine upakkilesas, and vihiṃsā-saṅkappa is one of the three saṅkappas to be abstained from.


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vijjā: science, knowledge, correct knowledge, higher knowledge. Vijjā can be understood as the antonym of avijjā. At AN 3.67, amoha is explained as having vijjā for synonym. At MN 53, Ānanda explains that it refers to these three ñāṇas:

1. pubbe·nivās·ānussati·ñāṇa.

2. sattānaṃ cut·ūpapāta·ñāṇa.

3. āsavānaṃ khayañāṇa. See for example MN 4.


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vimokkha: deliverance, release, emancipation, dissociation from the things of the world. Eight vimokkhas are listed at AN 8.66 (also at DN 16 and MN 77): the first two are stages of liberation from rūpa, the third consists in being intent only on subha, and the remaining five are the arūpajjhānas, together with saññā·vedayita·nirodha.
Remarkable contexts:

♦ Three types of vimokkha, respectively sāmisa, nirāmisa, and nirāmisa nirāmisa·tara ("more-nirāmisa-than-nirāmisa") are explained at SN 36.31.

Vimokkha is often used in reference to the destruction or exhaustion of upādāna (e.g. SN 12.32).

♦ At MN 106, vimokkha is likened to amata: "Etaṃ amataṃ yadidaṃ anupādā cittassa vimokkho" (This is amata, that is to say the vimokkha of citta without upādāna).


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vimutti: emancipation, release, liberation. There are two types of liberation, explained at AN 2.32:

1) ceto·vimutti

2) paññā·vimutti

Other derivative: vimuccati.


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vinaya:

1) subduing, riving out, abolishing, destruction, removal.

2) discipline.

3) as one of the Ti-piṭaka, it is the collection of all the teachings of the Buddha regarding pure discipline, especially the precepts defined in the pātimokkha. See Vinaya Piṭaka.


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vinipāta: downfall, bad falling. Synonym of duggati and apāya, with which it is very often associated. They are numbered as four: birth as an asura, in pettivisaya, in tiracchāna-yoni and in niraya. Beings are lead to such states of existence by adopting the ten akusala kamma·pathas: see AN 10.176.


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viññāṇa: consciousness, cognizing part of the mind. It is nearly synonymous with citta and mana, but not quite. Viññāṇa refers rather either to the particularizing awareness pertaining to a sense door (cakkhu-viññāṇa, sota-viññāṇa etc. as stated at SN 12.2), or to the underlying stream of consciousness which is responsible for (the illusion of) personnal continuity during a life time and also between two successive existences, in which sense it is so described at SN 12.38. Viññāṇa appears in various contexts:

1) as the third link of paṭicca·samuppāda, conditioned by saṅkhāras and giving rise to nāma-rūpa. In this context, viññāṇa is defined as sixfold by the Buddha at SN 12.2: one type for each sense door.

2) as one of the five upādānakhandhas. In this context, viññāṇa is defined differently by the Buddha at SN 22.79.

3) as one of the four āhāras. The Buddha describes how the nutriment of consciousness should be considered at SN 12.63.
Derivative: vijānāti.


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viññāṇañcāyatana: [viññāṇañca+āyatana] the sphere of infinity of consciousness. Considered as the 6th jhāna. See the standard description here.


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vipāka: consequence/ fruit/ result (of actions). Refers to any physical or mental phenomenon (e.g. pleasant thought, painful sensation, consciousness at a particular sense door etc.) which is the result of intentional deeds, whether kusalas or akusalas, performed by way of body, speech or mind in the past.


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vipallāsa: distortion, corruption, perversion, inversion. The distorsions are described at AN 4.49 as pertaining to saññā, citta and diṭṭhi, and as fourfold: distortion in the perception of the ti·lakkhaṇa (i.e. anicca, dukkha, anattā) and in the incorrect perception of what is asubha.


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vipariṇāma: change (for the worse), reverse, vicissitude, often with the meaning of disppointment.


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vipassanā: insight, inward vision, introspection. yathā·bhūtaṃ understanding by insight into the phenomena arising from moment to moment in the body and the mind, i.e. by way of a perspicacious perception during meditation, of the ti·lakkhaṇa i.e. anicca, dukkha and anattā.


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virāga: absence of rāga, disenchantment, dispassion, detachment, indifference. Used in some cases as a designation of Nibbāna.


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virāgasaññā: [virāga+saññā]

perception of disenchantment/dispassion. This practice is explained at AN 10.60.

♦ According to AN 7.27, so long as the bhikkhus practice virāga·saññā, only growth can be expected of them, not decline.


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vīriya: vigour, energy, effort, exertion, persistence.

1) it is one of the five spiritual indriyas and the five balas. Vīriya as one of the five balas is defined at AN 5.14.

2) it is one of the seven bojjhaṅgas. Derivates: vīriy·ārambha, āraddha·vīriya


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vīriyārambha: [vīriya+ārambha]

arousal of energy, application of exertion. The associated adjective is āraddha·vīriya, qv. for more detailed explanations.

♦ According to AN 1.85, vīriy·ārambha leads to great welfare.

♦ According to AN 1.117, vīriy·ārambha leads to the continuation, non-confusion and non-decline of the saddhamma.

♦ According to AN 1.18, vīriy·ārambha, destroys and prevents the arising of thīna·middhā, which is one of the five nīvaraṇas.

♦ According to AN 1.61, vīriy·ārambha, is the best tool to foster kusalā dhammā and remove akusalā dhammā.


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visuddhi: purity, rectitude, correctness, splendour, excellency.


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vitakka:

1) thought, reflection.

2) as a constituent of the verbal functions of the mind, particularly in the context of jhānas: initial application of the mind. Vitakka effectuates the grasping of a thought, it brings it under attention; its characteristic is to direct the consciousness towards an object. It is present together with vicāra at the entry in the first jhāna, and its cessation is a requisite condition for reaching the second jhāna. See vitakka-vicāra for comparison and differences from vicāra.


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vitakkavicārā: [vitakka+vicāra] together constitue the verbal function of the mind, the inner speech. vitakka represents the formation of discursive thoughts, and vicāra their pursuit, their maintenance, the examination of a subject of reflection. The Commentary compares vitakka to the action of striking a bell or seizing a pot, and vicāra to the vibration of the bell or the action of cleaning the pot.

Thus vitakka designates a phenomenon whose extension in time is limited, and vicāra a phenomenon having a certain continuity, arising on account of vitakka and maintening the mental activity it has produced.


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viveka: detachment, seclusion. Viveka is a necessary condition to the entry in the first jhāna.


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vossagga: renunciation, abandonment, detachment.


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Y
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yakkha
Yama
yāma
yampicchaṃ na labhati dukkha
yathābhūtaṃ
yoga
yojana
yoniso
yoniso manasikāra



yakkha: non-human beings ranking somewhere between petas and devas. They can be either frightful and ill-tempered or to the contrary kind-hearted and protective. There are many suttas where yakkhas speak wrongly or misbehave with the Buddha or arahants. They encompass many supernormal beings which are predominant in animistic beliefs, as they are chiefly creatures of the wilds and forests.


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Yama: god of death.


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Yāma: class of devas living in the third of the six deva-lokas pertaining to kāma-bhava, ranking between those of Tāvatimsa and those of tusita. At AN 3.71 it is said that the length of a day and night in this plane of existence is equivalent to 200 human years and that the average lifespan of these devas is of two thousand such years, which equals altgether 146 million human years.


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yampicchaṃ na labhati dukkha: [yaṃ+pi+iccha na labhati dukkha] suffering of not getting what one wants. See the definition given by the Buddha at SN 56.11.


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yathābhūtaṃ: [yathā+bhūta] as it is, according to reality, in its true nature. The frequent association 'yathā·bhūtaṃ pajānāti' stands for 'one understands as it is in reality', which means: one understands the phenomenon under observation in its reality while it actually occurs, in one's own direct experience, and not merely in a general way, philosophically or intellectually.

In the case of the four ariya·saccas, one understands suffering while it arises, one understands its cause, its cessation and the way leading ot its cessation while they are arising. That means, one's understanding is rooted in one's experience from moment to moment, and therefore takes place in the deeper levels of the mind, and not merely at the general and superficial level of the intellect.

As stated in a number of suttas (e.g. SN 56.1), the prerequisite for seeing dhammas yathā·bhūtaṃ is to develop samādhi, which some interpret as reaching the fourth jhāna.


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yoga:

1) yoke

2) connection with--, application to--

3) relation, association

4) (fig:) bond, tie, attachment

5) application, endeavour, undertaking, effort

6) pondering (over), concentration, devotion

7) (magic) power, influence

8) means, instrument, remedy.

♦ The frequent expression yoga·kkhema ("rest from the yoke") is explained at AN 4.10.


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yojana: measure of length used in ancient India, corresponding to the distance which can be travelled with one yoke of oxen, said to be about 7 miles (10 km).


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yoniso manasikāra: [yoniso+manasikāra] fruitful considerations, appropriate attention, appropriate reflection, wise considerations - lit: 'fixing one's attention with a purpose or thoroughly'. Ayoniso manasikāra means disorderly or distracted attention. Yoniso manasikāra is one of the four sot·āpattiy·aṅgas. At MN 2, the Buddha defines the 'dhammā na manasi-karaṇīyā' (things ought not to be considered), which in short consist of dhammas that support āsavas of kāma, of bhava or avijjā, namely interrogations related to the past or future state of the self, such as: 'What was I in the past? How was I in the past? What shall I be in the future?' etc, or diṭṭhis of six kinds related to the self and the eternalist view. On the other hand, the 'dhammā manasi-karaṇīyā' (things ought to be considered) are defined as the dhammas that undermine āsavas of kāma, of bhava or avijjā, and the consideration of the four ariya·saccas, which leads to the abandonment of the three lower saṃyojanas.



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