Conjugation of verbs

There is a great deal of variation in conjugations, but those are the main patterns.




An example: conjugation of pacati - to cook

PresentPast tenses: Aorist & ImperfectFuture
I cookpacāmi
you(sg) cookpacasi
he speakspacati
we cookpacāma
you(pl) cookpacatha
they cookpacanti
I cookedpaciṃ, (a)paca, (a)pacaṃ
you(sg) cookedpaci, (a)paco
he cookedpaci, (a)paca, (a)pacā
we cookedpacimha, pacimhā, (a)pacamhā
you(pl) cookedpacittha, (a)pacattha
they cookedpaciṃsu, pacisuṃ, (a)pacu, (a)pacū
I will cookpacāmi
you(sg) will cookpacasi
he will cookpacati
we will cookpacāma
you(pl) will cookpacatha
they will cookpacanti
Remarks: 1) the first form in each line is the aorist,
which is the most common 2) aorist and perfect are
completely mixed and confused in the language


Optative: may/should/can/couldImperative
I may cookpaceyyāmi, pace
you(sg) may cookpaceyyāsi, pace
he may cookpaceyya, pace
we may cookpaceyyāma
you(pl) may cookpaceyyātha
they may cookpaceyyuṃ
let me cookpacāmi
cook!(sg)pacāhi, paca
let him cookpacatu
let us cookpacāma
cook!(pl)pacatha
let them cookpacantu


ParticiplesPassive future participle & Gerund
present participle: 'cooking':pacanta, pacaṃ

passive perfect participle: 'cooked'

pacata
kappeti (to arrange) > 'arranged'kappita
bhuñjati (to eat) > 'eaten'bhutta
nisīdati (to sit) > 'sat'nisinna

active perfect participle: 'having cooked'

pacatavā
nisīdati (to sit) > 'having sat'nisinnavā
karoti (to do) > 'having done'katvā

reflective participle (rare:)

pacamāna
Remark: all participles are of the nature of verbal adjectives
and must agree with their nouns, in number, gender and case.
Meanings: 'fit to be..', 'must be..', 'ought to be..', 'to be..'
(Future passive participle)
-tabba
'fit/ought to/must be cooked' (etc.):pacatabba
-ya
khādati (to chew) > 'must be chewed' (etc.)khajja
karoti (to do) > 'to be done' (etc.)kāriya, kayya, kayīra
-anīya
pujati (to honor) > 'fit/worthy to be honored' (etc.)pujanīya
karoti (to do) > 'must be done' (etc.)karaṇīya

(Gerund)
pacati (to cook) > 'the cooked'pacitvā
suṇāti (to hear) > 'the heard'sutvā



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